ACTIVE ENERGY MANAGEMENT - University of New South Wales

ACTIVE ENERGY MANAGEMENT - University of New South Wales

Electrical Energy How is it generated and distributed? Why are electricity prices rising so quickly? What are renewables and what are the issues? 1 Generation Sources

Coal Large scale Gas e.g. 1GW per station Nuclear Hydro Oil Renewables (Wind, PV, Solar thermal) Medium scale e.g. 100-300MW 2 Global supply of electricity sources (TW Hours) 8,000

4,500 2,800 3,200 1,100 200 Coal Natur al Gas Nuclear 50 50 Hydro Petroleu Biogas GeoSolar / m & therma Wind Data: IEA, AWEA, DOE Wastes

l Energy Information Administration 3 Traditional Power System Transmission 275 kV 132 kV 132 kV 33 kV Distribution Generation 33 kV 11 kV 11 kV 415 V Users 4

Network Evolution Generation Transmission 275 kV 500 MW 132 kV 132 kV 33 kV Distribution 20 MW 33 kV 11 kV Renewables 5 MW 11 kV 400 V

5 Network Transformation Transmissionconnected generator Biomass Transmission system Grid supply point Distribution network Customers/ PV generators Combined Heat and Power 6 Market players in Australia

Generators Transmission network operators Transgrid, Power link Distribution network operators Delta, TRUEnergy, Macquarie Generation Endeavour, Ausgrid

Retailers AGL, Origin 7 Electricity costs Each market player has to earn an income. Each dollar you pay in your electricity bill is distributed as follows (approx): Generation 20 cents Transmission 20 cents Retailer 20 cents Distribution 40 cents What does this mean? Only 20% of your bill buys the energy that you use. 8

Electricity costs 20% rise in 2012 9 Electricity price rise networks Of the 18% rise in 2012, 8% was for poles and wires capital investment: Meet growing loads Changing energy use patterns Rising peak demand Replace ageing assets Improve network security and reliability. 10 Electricity price rise carbon price Of the 18% rise in 2012, 9% is due to the carbon price: $23

per tonne of Carbon Hits coal generators particularly coal Incentivises renewablesand gas 11 City East Cable Tunnel Project 3.2km tunnel 132kV cable 12 Wind More wind capture

Grid integration 100% 90% 80% 70% Wind Output 60% Annual Mean 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 00:00

03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00 Half-hour Doireann Barry & Paul Smith ESB National Grid, Ireland 14

100% 90% 80% 70% Wind Output 60% Annual Mean April Mean 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 00:00 03:00 06:00

09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00 Half-hour 15 100% 90% 80% 70% Annual Mean

April Mean Day 5 Day 13 Day 14 Day 15 Day 26 Wind Output 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 00:00 03:00 06:00

09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00 Half-hour 16 Problematic Wind Profiles From the analysis Wind Power Series presented, a number of problematic profiles emerged

These wind profiles are problematic because of Timing of the occurrence Reduction in energy over a short period of time 17 Photovoltaic Reduce costs 18 PV Output Profiles 0.7

0.6 Output 0.5 Per unit 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 6 8

10 12 14 16 18 20 Time of day Site 12, Day 4 Month 3. Reasonable output power, cloud cover minor and consistent. 19 PV Output Profiles 0.9 0.8

Output Per unit 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 6 8 10 12 14

16 18 20 Time of day Site 12, Day 5 Month 3. Reasonable output power but a number of rapid changes due to cloud cover. 20 PV Output Profiles 0.16 0.14 Output 0.12

Per unit 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 6 8 10 12 14

16 18 20 Time of day Site 12, Day 6 Month 3. Poor output power. 21 Poorly Chosen Site 0.8 Morning shade at site 1 0.7 0.6 Output Per unit

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

20 Time of day Site 12 and Site 1, Day 4 Month 3. Reasonable output power, cloud cover minor and consistent. 22 Problematic PV Profiles PV output does change rapidly. PV is only available during daylight hours so does not contribute to evening peak demand. PV is an expensive technology.

PV reached Grid parity in Australia in 2011. 23 100% Renewables Report - AEMO 24 100% Renewables Report - AEMO 25 100% Renewables Report - AEMO 26 Summary

Primary energy source for electricity is fossil fuel. Electricity prices rising in 2012 due to need for capital investment and carbon price. Renewables are a useful source of energy but have potential issues when connecting to the grid. AEMOs 100% renewables report represents first reasoned appraisal of the possibility. 27

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