Academic Language, - I love to Learn ~ I love to Teach
Academic Language, edTPATM Melanie Hundley, Vanderbilt University The edTPA trademarks are owned by The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University. Use of the edTPA trademarks is permitted only pursuant to the terms of a written license agreement. Academic Language 101 2 Todays goals: Define academic language Examine academic language in the edTPA
Discuss ways to support the candidates Academic Language Definition the language of the discipline that students need the oral and written language used for academic purposes 3 to learn and use to participate and engage in meaningful ways in the content area
the means by which students develop and express content understandings Challenges of Academic Language The more experience we get with our content area, the more expert we become; the harder it is to see academic language. 4 blind spot familiarity Definition Academic
language is the oral and written language that students need in order to understand (read, listen, think) communicate (listen, speak, write, connect) perform (think, read, write, listen, speak, solve, create) Academic Language is necessary to participate in the content
think question talk learn SCALE 2012 6 Academic Language Functions Language Functions content and focus of the learning task represented by action verb within the learning outcome
Analyze, Argue, Compare, Describe, Evaluate, Explain, Interpret, Justify, Synthesize 7 Learning Segment 8 A set of 35 lessons coherent set of lessons build on each other
toward a central focus clearly defined beginning and end Learning Task Includes: activities discussions other modes of participation that engage students
Learning tasks for segment 9 to develop, practice, and apply skills and knowledge related to a specific learning goal connected to language function for learning segment Language Demands Specific ways that academic language is used by students to participate in learning tasks
reading writing listening and/or speaking demonstrate/perform Specific ways that academic language is used by students to demonstrate their disciplinary understanding. 10 What do they know? What can they do?
What can they use language to demonstrate? Language Demands There are language demands that teachers need to consider as they plan to support student learning of content, which include: 11 Vocabulary Language Functions Syntax Discourse Central Focus
A description of the important understandings and core concepts that you want students to develop within the learning segment. The central focus should go beyond a list of facts and skills, align with content standards and learning objectives, and address the subjectspecific components in the learning segment. 12 Vocabulary includes words and phrases (and symbols) that are used within disciplines including:
words and phrases with subject specific meanings that differ from meanings used in everyday life (e.g., table, ruler, force, balance); general academic vocabulary used across disciplines (e.g., compare, analyze, evaluate); and subject-specific words defined for use in the discipline. Syntax Set of conventions for organizing symbols, words and phrases together into structures (e.g., sentences, graphs, tables) Examples from mathematics: Cathy Zozakiewicz Cathy Zozakiewicz
Syntax Grammar consists of set rules regarding language and sentence structure, such as no splitting infinitives and no hanging prepositions. Syntax, in reference to sentences, is how a sentence is worded and structured and in ways that can create, extend, or change meaning. types of sentence (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, imperative) and word order (passive vs. active voice),
length of sentences (short vs. long). Discourse Discourse Structures of written and oral language How members of the discipline talk, write, and participate in knowledge construction Discipline-specific Distinctive about features/way of structuring language (text structures) edTPA
Planning Commentary Teacher candidates must identify a language function essential to the central focus. Identify a key learning task that provides students with opportunities to practice using the language function edTPA Planning Commentary Additional language demands Given the language function & identified task, identify associated language demands
Vocabulary Syntax Discourse Language Supports Instructional supports that will help students UNDERSTAND and USE language function & identified language SCALE 2012 Learnin g Segme nt Vocabula ry
Practic e Central Focus Langua ge Functio n 19 Key Learnin g Task Syntax Scaffol ds and Suppor
ts Discour se edTPA Variations in Academic Language Some content areas address academic language differently. Early Childhood: vocabulary (as developmentally appropriate sounds, words, sentences, etc.) World Language (does not address academic language)
Math: added precise language (CCSS) Special Education: Academic Language Communication Academic Language in Commentaries Task 1, Planning 4. Supporting English-Language Arts Development Through Language a. Language Demand: Language Function. Identify one language function essential for students within your central focus. Listed below are some sample language functions. You may choose one of these or another more appropriate one for your learning segment. Analyze Argue Describ e Evaluat
e SCALE 2012 21 Explain Interpre t Justify Synthes ize Candidate 1 The academic language for this learning segment is related to using and understanding informational texts. Students have read many forms of narrative texts before, but are uncomfortable with other kinds of texts. On the whole, students do not understand how text features are used,
especially in informational texts, and this affects their performance in content area classes. Many students are also unaware of less commonly used text features, like white space and pronunciations in parentheses. Therefore, this learning segment will focus on 22 defining and using these terms. Candidate 2 The language demand for this segment is the interpretation of poetry using textual evidence. Students will identify their interpretation of the theme of a poem, and then support their analysis using evidence from the text and knowledge of poetic devices. Students have prior knowledge in analysis and interpretation of texts, but we have not yet worked with poetry or poetic devices in class.
During previous whole group discussion, students were able to define and explain their knowledge of the terms annotate, interpret, and analyze. Some students can easily identify theme and can recognize the use of literary devices, but many students are still learning this skill. Though all of my students can use supporting details, some still struggle with using conventions and textual evidence correctly. 23 Academic Language in Commentaries b. Identify a key learning task from your plans that provides students with opportunities to practice using the language function identified above. In which lesson does the learning task occur? (Give lesson/day/number.) c. Additional Language Demands. Given the
language function and task identified above, describe the following associated language demands (written or oral) student need to know and/or use: Vocabulary Plus at least one of the following: SCALE 2012 24 Syntax Discourse Candidate 1
In this learning segment, students will be learning about different text features that are often used in informational texts. The academic language includes white space, pictures, bullets, headings, subheadings, captions, sidebars, maps, drawings, and graphs. Students will also need to learn vocabulary words such as reform and intuition, which are present in the news and magazine articles that they will be reading in this unit. Students will be exposed to the academic language in a practical and engaging manner, filled with multiple opportunities to apply the new academic language across various genres of informational texts. 25 Candidate 2 The key language demand in this particular learning segment is providing a written interpretation of a poems theme using textual evidence and knowledge of literary devices to support their
analysis. This is a language demand that combines many complex skills. Students will be scaffolded through graphic organizers, modeling, peer support, and teacher conferencing in order to internalize this demand. Ultimately, students will create an argumentative essay about a poem of their choice where they explain the theme and then use evidence to back up their claims. The demand is integral to the central focus of analyzing poems for theme and the use of literary devices. Students need to be able to support their opinions and interpretations with textual evidence. This demand is appropriate for the students language development because it builds on their knowledge of supporting claims using textual evidence (with other types of texts) and it helps to prepare them for future classes, standardized tests, and their future outside of school 26 Candidate 2 contd Students will also need to know the terms symbolism, metaphor, simile, imagery, blank
verse, personification, and rhyme and rhythm in order to be able to support their interpretations of a poems theme. This learning segment also requires that students be able to communicate their ideas to their peers and clearly explain their claims with supporting evidence. Students will also need to be able to select key evidence from the poems and must know how to write a reflective essay on poetry. 27 Academic Language in Commentaries d. Language Supports. Refer to your lesson plans and instructional materials as needed in your responses to the prompt.
Describe the instructional supports (during and prior to the learning task) that help students understand and successfully use the language function and additional language identified in prompts 4a-c. SCALE 2012 28 Candidate 2 Throughout this learning segment, students will also be exposed to new vocabulary words in the poetry that we will read. In previous units, students have used multiple strategies, including context clues and knowledge of word parts to break down words to determine their meaning. Students each have a list of strategies to use when they encounter unknown words in their binders for the class. They will continue to use this list for support
during this unit, as well as other supports under the academic language section. I have two ELL students who have fairly strong academic language skills, but sometimes struggle with making sense of new vocabulary words. I plan on pairing them with other students in the class and providing guided notes to support their learning. 29 Candidate 2 contd I am using numerous instructional supports that will help students in meeting the language demand and learning about the various poetic terms and devices that they will need. I will use think-alouds and other forms of modeling when I introduce the interpretive essay. I wrote an example of an analysis essay based on a poem that we have previously covered in class, and I plan on going through the essay with students, and asking them to annotate my argument and the ways in which I am using
textual evidence and the poetic devices. After modeling the think-aloud protocol, I will ask students to give their own examples from the poem and to brainstorm their own themes using textual evidence. Students will then discuss their responses in small groups. 30 Candidate 2 contd I am also introducing a limited number of terms each day so that students have the opportunity to practice using academic language in pairs, table groups, and full-class discussionsI am also planning on using graphic organizers that have examples of terms, different ways in which they are used in various texts. Students will complete these organizers in small groups so that they have the opportunity to discuss the terms and language with each other. To support my ELL students and other students struggling with academic language, I will cover strategies multiple times. This will allow students multiple opportunities to practice using the language and to get
feedback. I also plan on meeting with students individually to discuss their progress on the interpretive essay and to give feedback. The use of direct instruction, conferencing, graphic organizers, and peer support will all support students in using the targeted language. 31 English Analyze Argue
Describe Evaluate Explain Interpret Justify Synthesize SCALE 2012 Language Functions in edTPA Handbooks
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