A Multi-Disciplinary Intervention Approach For Use With Farm ...

A Multi-Disciplinary Intervention Approach For Use With Farm ...

Noticing Clients with High Stress, Anger, Depression, and Suicidal Thinking & Knowing What to Do Next AgrAbility National Training Workshop, Grand Rapids, MI October 7, 2009 4:00-4:45 pm AANTWStressAnger10.0709.ppt (Rev. 9.2909a) Noticing Clients with High Stress, Anger, Depression, and Suicidal Thinking & Knowing What to Do Next By Robert J. Fetsch, Ph.D., Extension Specialist & Professor, Human Development & Family Studies Colorado State University Director, Colorado AgrAbility Project Farm/Ranch stress

Farming is one of the top 12 high stress occupations. According to NIOSH, farm owners were second only to laborers in the rate of death for stress-related diseases. What were the top stressors for farmers? For < 1,000 New Zealand dairy farmers: Time pressures

Machinery failures Weather Government policies What were the top stressors for farmers? For 1,015 New Zealand farmers: Increased work load at peak times Dealing with workers compensation Bad weather Complying with health and safety legislation

What were the top stressors for farmers? For 1,343 Iowa farm residents: Death of a spouse Death of a child Disabling injury of a family member

Disabling injury to oneself Foreclosure on a mortgage/loan Divorce Machinery breakdown during harvest Loss of crop to weather Loss of crop to pests/disease Severe weather conditions HANDOUT: Farm and Ranch Family Stress and Depression: A Checklist and Guide for Making Referrals What are signs of high stress?

Change in routines Increase in illness Appearance of farmstead declines. Care of livestock declines. Number of farm/ranch accidents increases. Children show signs of stress. What are signs of chronic, prolonged stress? Physical

Headaches Ulcers Backaches Eating irregularities Sleep disturbances Frequent sicknesses Exhaustion What are signs of chronic, prolonged stress? Physical Panic attacks and/or heart palpitations Sweating, trembling or shaking Shortness of breath, chest pain or discomfort

Difficulty swallowing, nausea or abdominal distress Lightheadedness, derealization or depersonalization Adapted from Rosmann, M. R. (2002, September 9). Weathering tough times: Responding to farmers, ranchers and rural businesspersons [Satellite Video Conference]. Available from http://www.panhandle.unl.edu/tough_times . Ranch/Farm anger There is very little research comparing the levels of anger among farm with non-farm populations. A study of 323 parents who participated in an anger management parenting program found that farmers anger levels were the same as those of people who lived in a small town, city or metropolisexcept for their state anger (i.e., the intensity of ones anger at a

particular moment)and it was statistically significantly lower. What is anger? Anger is a bio-physical-emotional reaction to an unmet expectation. When we get angry, if we stop, step back and think about it, somewhere there is an unmet expectation. Recall a recent time when you got angry. What might your unmet expectation have been?

How do you feel? Annoyed? Enraged? Enraged? Furious? Angry? Frustrated? Irritated? Aggravated? Annoyed? RETHINK

Recognize Empathize Think Hear Integrate Notice Keep Farm/Ranch depression Many farmers/ranchers struggle with depression. It is not clear whether they experience lower/higher levels of depression and other mental health issues as does the

general population. Farm/Ranch depression Some researchers found a relationship between exposure to pesticides and high levels of depression among CO farmers/ranchers. ND farmers depression levels were almost twice that of other rural populations in the past. Farm/Ranch depression IA farm men were more likely to

experience depression if within the previous year they had: Lost something of sentimental value Experienced substantial income decline Gone deeply into debt Faced legal problems Or experienced an increase in health problems. HANDOUT: Farm and Ranch Family Stress and Depression: A Checklist and Guide for Making Referrals What are signs of depression?

Appearance Unhappy feelings Negative thinking Reduced activity and pleasure in usual activities People problems Physical problems Guilt and low self-esteem What are signs of depression?

Sadness Inability to experience genuine pleasure Significant weight loss (not due to dieting) or gain (5% of body weight/month) Excessive sleep and/or middle or late night insomnia Feeling lethargic or agitated Loss of energy Adapted from Rosmann, M. R. (2002, September 9). Weathering tough times. What are signs of depression?

Loss of energy Feeling worthless/inappropriate guilt Inability to concentrate Preoccupied with negatives Recurrent thoughts of suicide Adapted from Rosmann, M. R. (2002, September 9). Weathering tough times. What is the common cold of modern psychology? The common cold of modern psychology is depression.

A major depression interferes with your positive experience and dramatically affects your life. This is more than the normal blues. Every year 1/10 people experience a major depression. Depression is very common. Source: E. Chavez (personal communication, October 16, 2005). The common cold of modern psychology is depression. Depression is associated with loss, e.g. death of a spouse, child, divorce, loss of the family farm/ranch. With 1 loss in your life, chances of major depression is 50%.

With 2 losses, 75%. With 3 losses, 100%. Source: E. Chavez (personal communication, October 16, 2005). The common cold of modern psychology is depression. Several things protected people from depression. Having an intimate relationship (someone to talk with) helps us navigate the losses. Having fewer than 3 children at home. Having a job outside the home because it can help bring financial stability. Having a true, deep, and abiding religious belief. Source: E. Chavez (personal communication, October 16, 2005).

The common cold of modern psychology is depression. If you or a family member is depressed, you may need to see a doctor. Why? Because when we do things that depressed people do, we get depressed. We stop doing fun things. We focus our thinking on negative things in life. We stop exercising. We dont have marital relations as often. Source: E. Chavez (personal communication, October 16, 2005). The common cold of modern psychology is depression.

What is the best, most effective cure for depression? Combination of taking good care of yourself, exercise, counseling, and medication. Farm/Ranch suicide rates Higher rates of suicide among farmers/ ranchers have been reported in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Scotland, and the U.S. What Does the Research Say?

In the U.S. Gunderson et al. (1993) reported that farm women, children, adolescents, and farm laborers were at a low risk of suicide. However, farmers and ranchers were 1.5-2 times more likely to commit suicide than other adult men. What Does the Research Say? Gunderson et al. (1993) found a crude death rate of all full-time farmers in the sample study

to be 48.1/100,000. Stallones (1990) also reported a crude rate of 48.1/100,000 in Kentucky. This is four times higher than the U.S. suicide rate between 1981 and 2006 which has ranged from a low of 10.4/100,000 (in 2000) to a high of 12.9/100,000 (in 1986). Suicide rates per 100,000 population by state and US Source: Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html. Suicide rates per 100,000 population by state and US Source: Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html. Suicide rates per 100,000 population by state and US

Source: Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html. Suicide rates per 100,000 population by state and US 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 IL IN

US IA Source: Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html. Suicide rates per 100,000 population by state and US 17 16 15 14 13 12 KY LA US ME

11 10 9 Source: Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html. Suicide rates per 100,000 population by state and US 14 13 12 11 10 9 MD MI US MN

8 7 6 Source: Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html. Suicide rates per 100,000 population by state and US 16 15 14 13 12 11 MO NH US

NC 10 9 8 Source: Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html. Suicide rates per 100,000 population by state and US Source: Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html. Suicide rates per 100,000 population by state and US Source: Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html.

Suicide rates per 100,000 population by state and US 15 14 13 12 11 10 PA TN US TX 9 8 Source: Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html.

Suicide rates per 100,000 population by state and US 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 VT VA US Source: Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html.

Suicide rates per 100,000 population by state and US Source: Retrieved March 25, 2008 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/ 2006 U. S. Suicide Rate by State Top Quintile STATE NUMBER of SUICIDES RATE Wyoming 116 22.5

Alaska 135 20.1 Montana 189 20.0 Nevada 486 19.5 New Mexico

352 18.0 South Dakota 125 16.0 Arizona 979 15.9 Oregon

579 15.6 Colorado 730 15.4 Idaho 222 15.1 Oklahoma 537

15.0 Source: Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html. National Institute of Mental Health Current Suicide Rates in U. S. Why do farmers/ranchers commit suicide at higher rates? Its not increased levels of mental health issues. It may have to do with: - Demands of family farms Culture of farming communities

Shortage of health care professionals in rural farming communities High accessibility to firearms Occupational stress Financial difficulties Family problems Retirement is a trying transition for farmers. Masculine Scripts (David & Brannon (1976) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. No sissy-stuff - men are expected to distance themselves from anything feminine. Big wheel - men should be occupationally or

financially successful. Sturdy oak - men should be confident and selfreliant. Give em hell -men should do what is necessary to make it. When youre hurting, be a mankeep it inside and tell no one! (Fetsch, 2009.) Western mountain states have the highest suicide death rates. The risk of suicide death increases among older men and is especially high for 75 years plusespecially if they lose their spouse and their dairy/farm. Most are white and not married. What are common predictors of suicide? Source: Colorado Trust, 2002, p. 8

Being an older, white male with risk increasing with age1/2 suicide deaths are by white males 35 years+. By age 75, the suicide death rate of white males is 5 times that of the national rate. Work problems, unemployment1/3 who commit suicide are unemployed at the time of their death. HANDOUT: Farm and Ranch Family Stress and Depression: A Checklist and Guide for Making Referrals What are signs of suicidal thinking?

Anxiety or depression Withdrawal or isolation Helplessness and hopelessness Alcohol abuse Previous suicidal attempts Suicidal plan Cries for help How can I respond best?

With respect With sincerity and honesty By listening and hearing their pain and worrynot by pitying them By caring Source: Adapted from Bosch K., & Griffin, C. (2002, September 5). Weathering tough times: Responding to farmers, ranchers and rural businesspersons [Satellite Video Conference]. Available from http://www.panhandle.unl.edu/tough_times . How can I respond best? IF YOURE UNSURE REFER! HANDOUT: Farm and Ranch Family Stress and

Depression: A Checklist and Guide for Making Referrals What do we do next? Recognize signs of farm and ranch stress. Take action. Find out about which local resources are available. Check your yellow pages under Counselors. Call 1-800-SUICIDE 24 x 7 for a live trained person to talk with and to find local resources.

What do we do next? Visit http://therapistlocator.net. http://therapists.psychologytoday.com/ppc/ prof_search.php?iorb=4764 http://www.networktherapy.com/directory/ find_therapist.asp http://therapists.americanmentalhealth.com/ therapistlocator.pagel Recovering from Natural Disasters B-1103 Men and Depression B-1104 Agriculture and Skin Cancer: What You Should Know B-1105

Lenders and Angry Customers B-1113 Surviving Tragedy B-1117 Men Seeking Help B-1134 http://ces.uwyo.edu/LIFE/Personal_Nature_Main.htm Agricultural Producers and Stress Series The Importance of a Healthy Attitude When Do You Need a Counselor? Eating and Activity for Health and Pleasure Identifying Stress on the Ranch and Farm Learning to Relax Finding Your Team of Experts http://ces.uwyo.edu/LIFE/Personal_Nature_Main.htm Be careful out there. Take good care of yourselves! Thank you very much! For More Information, Contact:

Bob Fetsch 970-491-5648 [email protected] How do I make an effective referral? 1) Be aware of the agencies and resources available in your communitywhat services they offer and what their limitations are. 2) Listen for signs and symptoms that the person or family needs help which you cannot provide, I.e., financial, legal or personal counseling. How do I make an effective referral?

3) Assess what agency or community resource would be most appropriate to address the persons/familys problems. 4) Discuss the referral with the person/family. It sounds/looks like youre feeling _____. I think _____, _____, or _____ could help you deal with your situation. How do I make an effective referral? 5) Explore the individuals/familys

willingness to initiate contact with the resource. How do you feel about seeking help from this person/agency? 6) Where the person or family is unwilling to take the initiative or where there is some danger if action is not taken, you should take the initiative. How do I make an effective referral? - Call the agency and ask to speak to the intake worker (if there is one). - Identify yourself and your relationship with the person/family. - Say what you think the persons/familys needs are. I think that Mr. ____ needs immediate protection from harming himself, needs a counseling appointment, and needs financial and legal assistance.

How do I make an effective referral? - Provide the agency with background information (name, address and telephone; age and gender; nature of current problem or crisis; any past history youre aware of; further information as called for). How do I make an effective referral? - Ask the agency what follow-up action they will take: - - When will they act on the referral? Who will be your contact later if necessary? What will be the cost of the service (flat feet/sliding scale)? Do you need to do anything else to complete the

referral? How do I make an effective referral? 7) Make sure the person/family and the referral agency connect and get together. 8) Make one or more follow-up contacts with the agency if the situation calls for it. U.S. Suicide Statistics (2004) Breakdown by Gender / Ethnicity / Age Groups All Ages Combined Elderly (65+ yrs)

Youth (15-24 yrs) Group Number of Suicides Rate of Suicide Elderly Suicides Elderly Suicide Rate Youth

Suicides Youth Suicide Rate Nation 32,439 11.1 5,198 14.3 4,316 10.4

Men 25,566 17.7 4,397 29.0 3,596 16.8 Women 6,873 4.6

801 3.8 720 3.6 Whites 29,251 12.3 4,924 15.4

3,610 11.0 Nonwhites 3,188 5.8 274 6.2 706 7.9 Blacks

2,019 5.2 148 4.8 465 7.2 White Men 23,081 19.6

4,180 31.1 3,016 17.9 White Women 6,170 5.1 744 4.0 594

3.8 Nonwhite Men 2,485 9.3 217 12.4 580 12.8 Nonwhite Women

703 2.4 57 2.2 126 2.8 Black Men 1,655 9.0 134

11.3 396 12.2 Black Women 364 1.8 14* 0.7 69

2.2 U.S. Suicide Statistics (2006) Breakdown by Gender / Ethnicity / Age Groups All Ages Combined Elderly (65+ yrs) Youth (15-24 yrs) Rate of Suicide Elderly Suicides Elderly Suicide

Rate Youth Suicides Youth Suicide Rate 33,300 11.15 5,299 14.22 4,189 9.91

Men 26,308 17.88 4,462 28.51 3,528 16.22 Women 6,992 4.61

837 3.87 661 3.22 Whites 27,952 13.93 4,884 16.11

2,944 11.18 Nonwhites 1,208 6.88 117 8.00 296 11.68 Blacks

1,909 5.06 139 4.45 407 6.42 White Men 21,952 22.3

4,136 32.25 2,496 18.47 White Women 6,000 5.87 748 4.27 488

3.49 Nonwhite Men 872 10.16 67 10.64 231 17.56 Nonwhite Women

336 3.74 50 6.01 65 1.25 Black Men 1,630 9.07 125

10.44 351 10.93 Black Women 279 1.41 14* 0.73 56

1.79 Group Number of Suicides Nation Thank you very much!

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