A History of Western Society

A History of Western Society

McKay Crowston Wiesner-Hanks Perry A History of Western Society Twelfth Edition CHAPTER 16

Toward a New Worldview 15401789 Copyright 2017 by Bedford/St. Martins Distributed by Bedford/St. Martin's/Macmillan Higher Education strictly for use with its products; Not for redistribution. I. The Scientific Revolution A. Why Europe? 1. With the expansion of Islam, Muslim scholars

inherited ancient Greek learning 2. Renewal of learning in western Europe 3. Universities dominated by Aristotle 4. Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution 5. Humanists 6. Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans (1453) 7. Navigational problems lead to new invention 8. Printing

I. The Scientific Revolution B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Scientific Thought to 1500 Natural philosophy Christianized view of Aristotle World of celestial spheres and the earth Four elements of the earth Ptolemys idea that the plants moved in small circles

6. Strengths and limitations of European knowledge I. The Scientific Revolution C. 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. The Copernican Hypothesis Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 1543) Stars and planets revolved around a fixed sun

On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543) Implications of the Copernican hypothesis Religious leaders varied in their response The Catholic Church declared the hypothesis false in 1616 New star in 1572 and a new comet in 1577

I. The Scientific Revolution D. Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo: Proving Copernicus Right 1. Tycho Brahe (1546 1601) 2. Johannes Kepler (1571 1630) 3. Three laws of planetary motion 4. Demolished the systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy 5. Galileo Galilei (1564 1642)

6. Law of inertia 7. Discovered the first four moons of Jupiter I. The Scientific Revolution E. Newtons Synthesis 1. Isaac Newton (1642 1727) 2. Philosophicae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687)

3. Law of universal gravitation 4. United the whole universe in one coherent system that prevailed until the twentieth century I. The Scientific Revolution F. Natural History and Empire 1. Pursuit of knowledge about geographical regions

2. Spanish sponsored scientific expeditions 3. Plants profitable for spices, medicines, dyes, and cash crops 4. Francisco Hernndez 5. Carl Linnaeus (1707 1778) I. The Scientific Revolution G.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Magic and Alchemy Many astronomers were also astrologers

Early modern practitioners of magic Johannes Keplers astrological principles Newton fascinated by alchemy Critics of the idea of universal gravitation II. Important Changes in Scientific Thinking and Practice A. The Methods of Science: Bacon and

Descartes 1. Francis Bacon (1561 1626) 2. Empiricism 3. The Royal Society 4. Ren Descartes (15961650) 5. Matter in motion, quantity of motion constant 6. Deductive reasoning 7. Modern scientific method combines Bacons

inductive and Descartess deductive reasoning II. Important Changes in Scientific Thinking and Practice B. 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry New study of the human body Paracelsus (1493 1541) Andreas Vesalius (1516 1564) William Harvey (1578 1657)

Robert Boyle (1627 1691) II. Important Changes in Scientific Thinking and Practice C. Science and Religion 1. Most scientists devoutly religious 2. Heliocentrism threatened the place of mankind in creation as stated in Genesis

3. The Holy Office banned the works of Copernicus and Kepler in 1616 4. Galileo Galilei tried for heresy and recanted 5. Some Protestant countries pro-science II. Important Changes in Scientific Thinking and Practice D. Science and Society

1. Rise of international scientific community 2. Governments intervened to support and direct research 3. Science relied on artisans expertise 4. New barriers to gender equality 5. Universities in Italy had some exceptions 6. Some female intellectuals were engaged through salons, experiments, and writing

III. The Rise and Spread of Enlightenment Thought 1. Diverse and conflicting ideas debated in international networks 2. Three essential concepts: rationalism, the scientific method, and progress

III. The Rise and Spread of Enlightenment Thought A. 1. 2. 3. The Early Enlightenment

The European Enlightenment (ca. 1690 1789) Newtons Principia in 1687 Dutch Republic: religious tolerance and republican rule 4. Pierre Bayles Historical and Critical Dictionary (1697) 5. Baruch Spinoza (1632 1677)

III. The Rise and Spread of Enlightenment Thought A. The Early Enlightenment 6. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646 1716) 7. John Lockes Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) 8. Human mind at birth is a blank tablet 9. Theory of sensationalism

III. The Rise and Spread of Enlightenment Thought B. The Influence of the Philosophes 1. Spirit of inquiry and debate from the philosophes 2. France a hub of the Enlightenment 3. Baron de Montesquieu (1689 1755)

4. The Spirit of Laws (1748) III. The Rise and Spread of Enlightenment Thought B. 5. 6. 7.

The Influence of the Philosophes Montesquieu argued for a separation of powers Voltaire (1694 1778) A reformer, not a revolutionary III. The Rise and Spread of Enlightenment Thought

B. The Influence of the Philosophes 8. Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts 9. Set out to teach people how to think critically 10. Encyclopedists thought knowledge would increase happiness 11. Exalted science, questioned religion 12. Widely read, and extremely influential

III. The Rise and Spread of Enlightenment Thought C. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Enlightenment Movements Across Europe A Republic of Letters Catholic Enlightenment The Scottish Enlightenment David Hume (1711 1776) III. The Rise and Spread of

Enlightenment Thought C. Enlightenment Movements Across Europe 5. Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) 6. Question of reasons and emotions 7. Immanuel Kant (1724 1804) 8. Cesare Beccaria (1738 1794)

IV. The Social Life of the Enlightenment A. Global Contacts 1. Jesuit missionaries transmitted knowledge of Chinese history and culture to the West 2. Leibniz believed that Chinese ethics and political philosophy were superior 3. Voltaire revered China

4. Montesquieu and Diderot criticized China 5. Attitudes towards Islam similarly mixed 6. Mary Wortley Montagu challenged prevailing ideas of Turkish people IV. The Social Life of the Enlightenment B.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Enlightenment Debates About Race The System of Nature (1735)

Scientists investigated the origins of race Of Natural Characters (1748) On the Different Races of Man (1775) New use of word race to designate biologically distinct groups of humans 6. Europeans now believed themselves culturally and biologically superior

IV. The Social Life of the Enlightenment B. Enlightenment Debates About Race 1. Scientific racism helped legitimate and justify the tremendous growth of slavery 2. History of the Two Indies (1770) 3. Diderot criticized European attitudes through the voices of outsiders

4. James Beattie (1735 1803) challenged claims of white superiority 5. Olaudah Equiano published memoirs testifying to the horrors of slavery IV. The Social Life of the Enlightenment C. Women and the Enlightenment

1. Marquis de Condorcet urged that women should share equal rights with men 2. Mary Astelll, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies (1694) 3. Women produced 15 percent of published novels 4. Active role in the informal dimensions of the Enlightenment 5. Rousseaus emphasis on the natural laws

governing women IV. The Social Life of the Enlightenment D. 1. 2. 3.

Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere Growth of book production and consumption Lending libraries Coffeehouses became meccas of philosophical discussion 4. Book clubs, debating societies, Masonic lodges, and newspapers

5. Philosophes though the masses had no time or talent for philosophical speculation 6. Literacy rates rose; ideas were popularized V. Enlightened Absolutism 1. Benevolent absolutism 2. Absolutist rules tried to reform their governments with Enlightenment ideals

3. Most influential new-style monarchs illustrate the achievements and limitations of enlightened absolutism V. Enlightened Absolutism A. Frederick the Great of Prussia 1. Frederick II (r. 1740 1786) 2. The European War of the Austrian Succession

(1740 1748) 3. The Seven Years War (1756 1763) 4. Peter III called off the attack against Frederick V. Enlightened Absolutism A. 5. 6.

7. Frederick the Great of Prussia Frederick adopted more human policies Prussian law and legal procedures improved Cameralism V. Enlightened Absolutism

B. 1. 2. 3. 4. Catherine the Great of Russia Catherine the Great of Russia (r. 1762 1796)

Set out to rule in an Enlightened manner Intellectual ruler Uprising sparked by Emelian Pugachev in 1773 V. Enlightened Absolutism B. 5. 6.

7. 8. Catherine the Great of Russia Catherines stopped trying to reform the system Successful in territorial expansion Divided up Polish territory Poland vanished from the map by 1795

V. Enlightened Absolutism C. 1. 2. 3. 4.

The Austrian Habsburgs Maria Theresa (r. 1740 1780) Church reforms Administrative reforms Combined state-building with the Enlightenment ideals to expand the role of the state 5. Inherent limitations in Enlightenment thinking

V. Enlightened Absolutism D. Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism 1. Moses Mendelssohn (1729 1786) 2. The Haskalah and social change 3. Most progressive reforms in Austria 4. Frederick the Great of Prussia opposed emancipation for the Jews

5. The Pale of Settlement 6. France all removed restrictions on Jews

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