19th & 20th Century Imperialism: Africa, Asia, and Latin America

19th & 20th Century Imperialism: Africa, Asia, and Latin America

African Imperialism & 19th & 20th Century Informal Imperialism: Africa, Asia, and Latin America Africa before Imperialism Before the arrival of European imperialists, boundaries in Africa

were loosely defined. They reflected territories inhabited and controlled by different ethnic and tribal groups. The Scramble for Africa (1870-1890) By 1870, Europeans controlled very little

actual territory in Africa France had acquired Algeria, in the Northwest, in the 1830s Britain controlled South Africa

Communities in the interior of sub-Saharan Africa still remained isolated and very diverse This changed dramatically between 1870 and 1890, as European powers engaged in a Scramble for Africa Northeast Africa: Suez Canal In the early 1880s, a local revolt threatened

European use of the Suez Canal. The Suez Canal was completed by French engineers in 1869 and provided the shortest route from Europe to East Africa, India, and East Asia. It became the lifeline between Britain and its colony in India The British quickly moved to put down the revolt and take over Egypt. Next, British troops took over the Sudan

European Powers Jump In Other powersFrance, Italy, Germany, & Belgiumeyed British actions jealously. They wanted parts of Africa for themselves. Diamonds, gold and other valuable resources were also discovered in Africa in the late 19th century.

In 1884, at the Berlin Conference, Bismarck and other European leaders divide up the remaining parts of Africa. By 1890, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent Major Imperial Powers The major European powers with colonies in Africa were Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium,

Portugal, and Italy The French acquired much of Central Africa and Northwest Africa above the Sahara. King Leopold II of Belgium ruled the Congo in the center of Africa as his private estate

The British established colonies in West Africa and along almost the whole length of East Africa from Egypt to South Africa He treated the natives harshly, killing millions to increase

production on his rubber plantations. Cecil Rhodes, a leading British imperialist, planned to build a railway down the eastern side of Africa from Cairo in Egypt to Capetown, South Africa. Germany took Tanganyika, Cameroon, Togo, and Southwest Africa Cecil Rhodes Quotes

Remember that you are an Englishman, and have consequently won first prize in the lottery of life. We must find new lands from which we can easily obtain raw materials and at the same time exploit the cheap slave labor that is available from the natives of the colonies. The colonies would also provide a dumping ground for the surplus goods produced in our factories.

Legacy of Imperialism in Africa European powers paid no attention at all to existing tribal boundaries. Wherever possible, they established mining operations or cultivated cash crops to be sold to Europe. Native Africans were used as a cheap workforce. Europeans also introduced advanced Western

technology and ideas Thus, Imperialism had both positive and negative effects on Africa Positive & Negative Effects of Imperialism on Africa Positive European medicine and improved nutrition increased the life-span of

Africans-Population Europeans helped modernize and industrialize Africa A small minority of African received improved education and greater economic opportunities Negative

Led to an erosion of traditional African values and destroyed many existing social relationships African peoples were treated as inferiors and forced to work long hours, in bad conditions, for low pay

Europeans ignored tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundaries which has led to continuing tribal conflicts in many African nations Informal Imperialism in Asia Informal imperialism- in areas where direct rule was not established, European powers

often dominated an areas economy China For thousands of years China had been united under its powerful emperors However, China had remained isolated from the world and by the 1830s, it lacked the military technology it needed to oppose Western Imperialism Western nations showed an interest in China because

its huge population offered a potential market for European manufactured goods. It also possessed valuable raw materials and produced local goods sought by Europeans. In China, European powers developed a system of informal imperialism The Opium Wars (1839-1842) In the 1800s, Great Britain began selling

opium in China to obtain money to buy tea. The government of China tried to stop this practice by sentencing Chinese opium dealers to death. The British reacted by declaring war. With their superior gunboats, the British were able to fire on Chinese coastal towns. China was defeated and was forced to continue the sale of opium.

Opium & China Opium damaged the Chinese economy, and created chaos and political instability in China China was also forced to open several treaty ports, giving the British new trading privileges The British established several Spheres of influenceareas of China under their exclusive economic control A flood of cheap British textiles hurt Chinese

industry Other European countries soon followed the British example and demanded their own spheres of influence China & the West Increasing European interference was extremely unpopular in China and weakened the prestige of the ruling Manchu Dynasty

The defeat of the Chinese army in the Opium Wars proved to the Chinese that they were no longer the Heavenly Middle Kingdom. Manchu rulers faced a series of major revolts. Millions of Chinese were killed when Chinas rulers put down the Taiping Rebellion (18501864) with European help Americas Open Door Policy & the Boxer Rebellion Fearing it would be shut out of Chinas profitable

trade, the United States proposed Equal trading rights for all nations in China in 1899 In 1899, a Chinese group known as the Boxers rebelled against the spread of foreign influence in China Hundreds of foreigners living in Chinese cities were killed during the riots led by the Boxers An international force, composed of troops from foreign powers, finally crushed the Boxer rebellion in 1900

The Opening of Japan In 1853, the United States government sent a naval squadron commanded by Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan. In addition to requesting better treatment for shipwrecked sailors, the American sought to develop new markets and establish a port where their ships to China could stop to obtain supplies.

Fearing a fate similar to Chinas, Japanese leaders opened their doors to American trade. Within a few years, the British, Russian, and Dutch negotiated similarly favorable treaties The Meiji Restoration (1868-1912) The Japanese samurai and daimyos criticized the Shogun (Japans ruler) for opening Japan to the West. Under this criticism the Shogunate collapsed and the

emperor, who had been a powerless figure head for over a thousand years, was restored to power Emperor Meiji, was convinced that Japan had to adopt Western ways if it was to escape future domination by the Western powers He sent scholars to other countries to learn advanced technologies and foreign customs, and received visits from foreign ministers. Steamboats and railroads were built and a new constitution was decreed.

Japan became the first non-Western country to successfully copy and adapt Western ways

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