13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships

13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships

13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships Remember cellular levels of organization? Atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism Environments have levels of organization too: Organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome Observations Remember: QuaLitative and QuaNtitative Data Short-term or Long-term studies (Darwin!!!) Visual Surveys: direct (scope) or indirect (footprints) Experimentation- direct study of organisms Lab: more control, less complex results Field: more accurate results (not always cause/effect)

Modeling Computer/math-based Uses lots of data to make predictions Quick lab/estimations 13.2 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic- living Abiotic- a=not, nonliving Match the following environmental factors as biotic or abiotic: Rock Sponge Shark Sunflower Water

Oxygen Fern Squirrel Sand Mangrove Tree Salinity Mulch Lilly Panther Apple Biodiversity Variety of life in an ecosystem Why do we care? __________________________

Keystone Species Keystone holds up an arch keystone Species has great effect on/in ecosystem Why do we care? __________________________ (Multimedia activity)WebQuest: Keystone species Use the information youve learned to predict what would happen if sea otters went extinct. 13.3 Energy in Ecosystems Producers = Autotrophs (make own food) Remember photosynthesis?? Also chemosynthesis: use chemical instead of sun Consumers = Heterotrophs (must eat something else) Herbivores- eats plants (herba = vegetation)

Omnivores- eats plants and animals (omna = all) Carnivores- eats animals (carnus = flesh) Detritivores- eats dead organic matter Decomposers-break down organic matter (Animation/simulations: visual concepts- 13.3) 2 facts from each visual you watch 13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs Hey dont write this first note you already did Consumers = Heterotrophs (must eat something else) Herbivores- eats plants (herba = vegetation) Omnivores- eats plants and animals (omna = all) Carnivores- eats animals (carnus = flesh) Detritivores- eats dead organic matter

Decomposers-break down organic matter Food chains show energy flow Food webs show complex feeding relationships Specialist- specific food type (1 or few organisms) Generalists- eat variety of foods in diet Trophic Levels Primary: autotrophs/producers Secondary: herbivores Tertiary: omnivores and carnivores Online: Animation- Build a food web (sketch web) 13.5 Cycling of Matter

Attach bunches of those little pictures Next to each picture we are going to write how elements enter/exit the system Hydrologic Cycle Enter: evaporation (bodies of water), transpiration Exit: condensation/precipitation, used plants/animals Biogeochemical Cycle How elements are cycled through biotic and abiotic parts of environment Oxygen Cycle Enter: autotrophs from photo-/chemo-synthesis Exit: used by humans or in soil as nutrients Carbon Cycle:

Enter: CO2 (atm), HCO3 (in water), fossil fuels/in ground, oil, natural gas, rocks, dead organic matter Exit: burning fossil fuels, plants, evaporation Nitrogen Cycle: Enter: bacteria, atmosphere, decomposing plants Exit: animals, plants Phosphorous Cycle: Enter: geologic movements, decomposition Exit: leaching, weathering, sedimentation 13.6 Pyramid Models Energy pyramid- E used by producers/consumers Biomass- total dry mass of all organisms in area

Each tier loses 90% of E = ONLY 10% of E is transferred from each trophic level!!! energy lost energy transferred Biomass pyramid Dry mass of tropic levels Mass of comsumers needed to support levels above them Pyramid of Numbers Numbers of individuals Vast #s of producers are

needed to support even just a few tertiary consumers Animations: Visual concepts 13.6 (2) tertiary consumers secondary consumers primary consumers producers tertiary consumers

75 g/m2 150g/m2 675g/m2 2000g/m2 5 secondary consumers 5000 primary consumers

500,000 producers 5,000,000

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