HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TORT LITIGATION SUM M ARY(APRIL 22, 2021)Blake WatsonSamuel A. McCray Chair in LawUniversity of Dayton School of [email protected] Books and Articles on Fracking Contamination and Trespass LitigationSummary of Tort Litigation Involving Hydraulic Fracturing(and Some Related Cases)Selected Articles and Cases Involving “Lone Pine” OrdersSelected Books and Internet ResourcesCOMPENDIUM OF SCIENTIFIC, MEDICAL, AND MEDIA FINDINGS DEMONSTRATING R ISKS AND HARMS OFFRACKING (5th ed. 2018) (a compilation of evidence outlining risks and harms of fracking housed on thewebsites of Concerned Health Professionals of New York ( and Physicians forSocial Responsibility ( Miles, QUAKELAND: ON THE ROAD TO AMERICA’S NEXT DEVASTATING EARTHQUAKE (2017)Daniel Raimi, THE FRACKING DEBATE: THE RISKS, BENEFITS, AND U NCERTAINTIES OF THE SHALEREVOLUTION (2017)Eliza Griswold, AMITY AND PROSPERITY: ONE FAMILY AND THE FRACTURING OF AMERICA (2018)Mark S. Guralnick, FRACKING: LAW AND P OLICY (2016)Keith B. Hall and Hannah J. Wiseman, HYDRAULIC FRACTURING: A GUIDE TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND REALP ROPERTY ISSUES (2016)Jenny Lisak, LIST OF THE HARMED, Pennsylvania Alliance for Clean Water and Air,

Selected ArticlesBrent Allen and Lesley Lawrence-Hammer, Hydraulic Fracking and Marcellus Shale: Drilling for MassTorts?, 13 No. 1 ABA Environmental Litigation and Toxic Torts Committee Newsletter 3 (Dec. 2011)Owen L. Anderson, Subsurface “Trespass”: A Man's Subsurface Is Not His Castle, 49 Washburn LawJournal 247 (Winter 2010)Owen L. Anderson, Lord Coke, The Restatement, and Modern Subsurface Trespass Law, 6 Texas Journalof Oil, Gas, and Energy Law 203 (2010-2011)Casey Ball, An Analysis of Strict Liability as Applied to Hydraulic Fracturing, 28 BYU Prelaw Review17 (2014), at eview/article/viewFile/34165/32003Andrew Belack, Comment, A Big Fracking Deal: Pennsylvania's Departure from Traditional Rule ofCapture Interpretation Paves Way for Fracking Trespass Claims, 10 Wash. J. Envtl. L. & Pol'y 1 (2020),available at: /2Joseph Belza, Note, Inverse Condemnation and Fracking Disasters: Government Liability for theEnvironmental Consequences of Hydraulic Fracturing under a Constitutional Takings Theory, 44 BostonCollege Environmental Affairs Law Review 55 (2017)Jason B. Binimow, Liability for Trespass or Nuisance in Hydraulic Fracturing, Hydro-fracturing, orHydro-fracking, 41 A.L.R. 7th Art. 1, § 2 (2019).William S. Blocker, Note, Trespassing under the Surface: Does Hydraulically Fracturing AcrossBoundaries Constitute Actionable Trespass?, 44 Oklahoma City University Law Review 83 (2019)Jacob Booher, Comment, Fracking-Caused Earthquakes: How Alleged Threats Could Trigger the Corpsof Engineers' Section 10 Jurisdiction, 45 Environmental Law 235 (2015)Brent Chicken, Subsurface Trespass and Pore Space in Colorado, Rocky Mountain Landman (Sep. 2011)Hannah Coman, Note, Balancing the Need for Energy and Clean Water: The Case for Applying StrictLiability in Hydraulic Fracturing Suits, 39 Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 131 (2012)Róisín Áine Costello, Reviving Rylands: How the Doctrine Could Be Used to Claim Compensation forEnvironmental Damage Caused by Fracking, 23 Review of European, Comparative and InternationalEnvironmental Law Review 134 (2014)Matt Douglas and Jamen Tyler, Shaking it Up: Sierra Club Brings Novel RCRA Claim in an Attempt toTighten Regulation of Fracking-Related Activities, in Trends, ABA Section of Environment, Energy, andResources Newsletter, Vol. 47 No. 6 (July/August 2016), available 015-2016/july-august-2016/shaking it up.htmlMonika U. Ehrman, Earthquakes in The Oilpatch: The Regulatory and Legal Issues Arising Out of OilAnd Gas Operation Induced Seismicity, 33 Georgia State University Law Review 609 (2017)-2-

Victoria N. Georgevich, Comment, Tapping into Trespass: Fracking, the Rule of Capture, and LandownerProtection, 69 DePaul Law Review 793 (2020)Hilary M. Goldberg, Melanie Stallings Williams, and Deborah Cours, It’s a Nuisance: The Future ofFracking Litigation in the Wake of Parr v. Aruba Petroleum, Inc., 33 Virginia Environmental Law Journal1 (2015)Michael Goldman, A Survey of Typical Claims and Key Defenses Asserted in Recent Hydraulic FracturingLitigation, 1 Texas A&M Law Review 305 (Fall 2013)Francis Gradijan, State Regulations, Litigation, and Hydraulic Fracturing, 7 Environmental & Energy Law& Policy Journal 47 (2012)Megan S. Haines, Hydraulic Fracturing and Related Activities as Giving Rise to Classic Tort Claims inPennsylvania, 87 Pennsylvania Bar Association Quarterly 103 (2016)Keith B. Hall, All Shook Up: Induced Seismicity, in Trends, ABA Section of Environment, Energy, andResources Newsletter, Vol. 47 No. 6 (July/August 2016), available 015-2016/july-august-2016/all shook up induced seismicity.htmlKeith B. Hall, Hydraulic Fracturing: If Fractures Cross Property Lines, is There an ActionableSubsurface Trespass?, 54 Natural Resources Journal 361 (2014)Keith B. Hall, Hydraulic Fracturing and the Baseline Testing of Groundwater, 48 University of RichmondLaw Review 857 (2014)Keith B. Hall, Hydraulic Fracturing Contamination Claims: Problems of Proof, 74 Ohio State LawJournalFurthermore 71 (2013), at s/2013/06/Furthermore.Hall .pdfKeith B. Hall, Hydraulic Fracturing Litigation, For the Defense 66 (January 2012)Alia Y. Heintz, Note, What’s the Harm in a Subsurface Trespass?, 51 Tulsa Law Review 777 (Spring2016)Oliver Hutchison, Hydraulic Fracturing Litigation: The Case of Jessica Ernst & the Problem of FactualCausation, 42 Canada-United States Law Journal 184 (2018)Jeffrey C. King, Jamie Lavergne Bryan, and Meredith Clark, Factual Causation: The Missing Link inHydraulic Fracture-Groundwater Contamination Litigation, 22 Duke Environmental Law and PolicyForum 341 (2012)Bruce M. Kramer, Horizontal Drilling and Trespass: A Challenge to the Norms of Property and Tort Law,25 Colorado Natural Resources, Energy & Environmental Law Review 291 (2014)-3-

Christopher S. Kulander & R. Jordan Shaw, Comparing Subsurface Trespass Jurisprudence - GeophysicalSurveying and Hydraulic Fracturing, 46 New Mexico Law Review 67 (2016)Colleen E. Lamarre, Note, Owning the Center of the Earth: Hydraulic Fracturing and SubsurfaceTrespass in the Marcellus Shale Region, 21 Cornell Journal of Law & Public Policy 457 (Winter 2011)Zachary Lees, Note, Anticipated Harm, Precautionary Regulation and Hydraulic Fracturing, 13 VermontJournal of Environmental Law 575 (2012)Michael R. Lieberman, Evaluating Hydraulic Fracturing Regulation under a Theory of Strict Liability,22 Buffalo Environmental Law Journal 37 (2014-2015)James Patrick Logan, What’s Shakin’? Ladra v. New Dominion, LLC: A Case of Consequence for theHydraulic Fracturing Industry and Those Affected by Induced Seismicity, 34 Pace Environmental LawReview 207 (2016), available at: leb Madere, Comment, Covert Capture: Hydraulic Fracturing and Subsurface Trespass in Louisiana,75 Louisiana Law Review 865 (2015)David G. Mandelbaum, Regulation of Unconventional Natural Gas Development, 25 Probate and Property44 (September/October, 2011)Neal J. Manor, Note, “What the Frack?” Why Hydraulic Fracturing Is Abnormally Dangerous andWhether Courts Should Allow Strict Liability Causes of Action, 4 Kentucky Journal of Equine, Agriculture,and Natural Resources Law 459 (2011-2012)Nick A. Marr, Comment, Shook: Litigation, Regulation, and Legislation Strategies to Better ProtectOklahoma’s Earthquake Insurance Policyholders, 72 Oklahoma Law Review 963 (Summer, 2020)Barclay Nicholson and Kadian Blanson, Tracking Fracking Case Law: Hydraulic Fracturing Litigation,26 Natural Resources & Environment No. 2 (Fall 2011)Barclay Nicholson and Brian Albrecht, Hydraulic Fracturing as a Subsurface Trespass, ABA EnergyCommittees Newsletter, Vol. 9, No. 2 (May 2012)Charles Nixon, The Continuing Saga of FPL Farming v. Environmental Processing Systems: Will theTexas Supreme Court Set New Rules of Liability for Underground Trespass?, 8 Texas Journal of Oil, Gas,and Energy Law 428 (2012-2013)James T. O'Reilly, The Liquid Left Behind: Uncertainty about the Cleanup Costs and Liability for WaterUsed in Fracking, 34 Natural Resources & Environment 42 (Fall 2019)David E. Pierce, Carol Rose Comes to the Oil Patch: Modern Property Analysis Applied to ModernReservoir Problems, 19 Penn State Environmental Law Review 241 (2011)David E. Pierce, Developing a Common Law of Hydraulic Fracturing, 72 University of Pittsburgh LawReview 685 (2011)-4-

Jason A. Proctor, Comment, The Legality of Drilling Sideways: Horizontal Drilling and Its Future in WestVirginia, 115 West Virginia Law Review 491 (2012)Danielle Quinn, A Fracking Fragile Issue: Courts Continue to Tiptoe Around Subsurface Trespass Claims,27 Villanova Environmental Law Journal 1 (2016)Emery Gullickson Richards, Finding Fault: Induced Earthquake Liability and Regulation, ColumbiaJournal of Environmental Law (April 2015), at 015/04Terry W. Roberson, Environmental Concerns of Hydraulically Fracturing a Natural Gas Well, 32 UtahEnvironmental Law Review 67 (2012)Leonard S. Rubin, Note, Frack to the Future: Considering a Strict Liability Standard for HydraulicFracturing Activities, 3 George Washington Journal of Energy & Environmental Law 117 (2012)Lucas Satterleea, Shattered Nerves: Addressing Induced Seismicity Through the Law of Nuisance, 46Environmental Law Reporter News & Analysis 10326 (April 2016)Joe Schremmer, Comment, Avoidable “Fraccident”: An Argument Against Strict Liability for HydraulicFracturing, 60 University of Kansas Law Review 1215 (2012)Joseph A. Schremmer, Getting Past Possession: Subsurface Property Disputes as Nuisances, 95 Wash. L.Rev. 315 (2020), available at: 0Aaron Stemplewicz, The Known "Unknowns" of Hydraulic Fracturing: A Case for a TraditionalSubsurface Trespass Regime in Pennsylvania, 13 Duquesne Business Law Journal 219 (Summer 2011)Kaoru Suzuki, Note, The Role of Nuisance in the Developing Common Law of Hydraulic Fracturing, 41Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 265 (2014)Blake A. Watson, Fracking and Cracking: Strict Liability for Earthquake Damage Due to WastewaterInjection and Hydraulic Fracturing, 11 Texas Journal of Oil, Gas, and Energy Law 1 (2016)Blake Watson, Hydraulic Fracturing and Tort Litigation: A Survey of Landowner Lawsuits, 31 Probateand Property Magazine, Issue 5 (Sept./Oct. 2017)Meredith A. Wegener, Shake, Rattle, and Palsgraf: Whether an Actionable Negligence Claim Can BeEstablished in Earthquake Damage Litigation, 11 Texas Journal of Oil, Gas, and Energy Law 115 (2016)Hannah Wiseman, Beyond Coastal Oil v. Garza: Nuisance and Trespass in Hydraulic FracturingLitigation, The Advocate (Texas State Bar Litigation Section Report), Vol. 57 (Winter 2011)Travis Zeik, Hydraulic Fracturing Goes to Court: How Texas Jurisprudence on Subsurface Trespass WillInfluence West Virginia Oil and Gas Law, 112 West Virginia Law Review 599 (2010)-5-

TORT LITIGATION INVOLVING HYDRAULIC FRACTURING(AND RELATED 04-2411-14Sheatsley v. Chesapeake Operating, Inc.Tucker v. Southwestern Energy Co.Berry v. Southwestern Energy Co.Ginardi v. Frontier Gas ServicesLane v. BHP Billiton Petroleum (Arkansas) Inc.Frey v. BHP Billiton Petroleum (Arkansas) Inc.Palmer v. BHP Billiton Petroleum (Arkansas) Inc.Hearn v. BHP Billiton Petroleum (Arkansas) Inc.Hiser v. XTO Energy Inc.Scoggin v. Cudd Pumping Services, Inc.Bartlett v. Frontier Gas Services, LLCSmith v. Southwestern Energy Co.Hill v. Southwestern Energy Co.Pruitt v. Southwestern Energy Co.Scoggin v. Southwestern Energy Co.Yanke v. Fayetteville GatheringMiller v. Chesapeake Operating, Inc.Sutterfield v. Chesapeake Operating, Inc.Mahan v. Chesapeake Operating, Inc.Thomas v. Chesapeake Operating, Inc.Ramsey v. DeSoto Gathering Co., LLCKay v. Peak Water Systems, LLCDavis v. Chesapeake Operating, Inc.Ramsey v. DeSoto Gathering Co., LLCStratton v. Kinder Morgan misseddismisseddismisseddecided, 15201605-1506-03Gardiner Family LLC v. Crimson Resource Mngmt.Gus Who v. US Governmentsettledclosed2011201103-2307-20Strudley v. Antero Resources Corp.Evenson v. Antero Resources 801-1204-30Andre v. EXCO Resources, Inc.Beckman v. EXCO Resources, Inc.Teekell v. Chesapeake Operating, Inc.Walsh v. Comstock Oil and Gas-Louisiana dLALALALA2009201108-2703-09Maring v. NalboneBaker v. Anschutz Exploration Corp.pendingclosedNYNY2009201008-1310-22Kartch v. EOG ResourcesArmes v. Petro-Hunt LLCsettleddismissed/settledNDND2010-11 G uy-G reenbrier Earthquake Victims v. C ARARARARARARARARARARARARARARARARARCACA

s v. John D. Oil and Gas Co.Payne v. Ohio Valley Energy Systems Corp.Alford v. East Gas Ohio Co.Boggs v. Landm