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EORIGINAL: ENGLISHDATE: JULY 29, 2013The Legal Status of Video Games: Comparative Analysis in NationalApproachesprepared by Mr. Andy Ramos, Ms. Laura López, Mr. Anxo Rodríguez, Mr. Tim Meng andMr. Stan Abrams11“The views and opinions expressed in this paper are the sole responsibility of the author. The paper is notintended to reflect the views of the Member States or the WIPO Secretariat”.

page 2TABLE OF CONTENTSACKNOWLEDGMENTS . 6INTRODUCTION . 7ORIGIN OF VIDEO GAMES . 7COPYRIGHTABLE SUBJECT MATTER FOUND IN VIDEO GAMES . 8PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE CREATION, DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING OFVIDEO GAMES . 9LEGAL CONTROVERSY – CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 10ARGENTINA. 12CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 12RIGHTS HOLDERS AND STAKEHOLDERS . 12THE ISSUE OF THE TRANSFER OF RIGHTS AND THE CONTRIBUTION OF THEAUTHOR . 13BELGIUM . 14CLASSIFICATION AS CREATIVE WORKS OF AUTHORSHIP . 14KEY STAKEHOLDERS . 16AUTHORSHIP. 17TRANSFER OF RIGHTS . 18ECONOMIC COMPENSATION . 19BRAZIL . 19CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 20RIGHTS HOLDERS AND STAKEHOLDERS . 21CANADA . 23STAKEHOLDERS. 23AUTHORSHIP. 24TRANSFER OF RIGHTS AND COMPENSATION . 27CHINA . 27CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 28RIGHTS HOLDERS AND TRANSFER OF RIGHTS . 28RECENT DEVELOPMENTS. 30DENMARK . 31STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVED IN THE VALUE CHAIN . 31AUTHORSHIP. 32WHO OWNS THE RIGHTS . 33FINANCIAL COMPENSATION . 33EGYPT . 34AUTHORSHIP AND STAKEHOLDERS. 34

page 3TRANSFER OF RIGHTS AND COMPENSATION . 35FRANCE . 36CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 36RIGHTS HOLDERS AND STAKEHOLDERS . 37THE QUESTION OF THE RIGHTS . 38COMPENSATION. 39GERMANY . 41CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 41RIGHTS HOLDERS AND STAKEHOLDERS . 41INDIA. 43LACK OF A SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATION . 43KEY STAKEHOLDERS . 44AUTHORS AND THE TRANSFER OF RIGHTS. 45ECONOMIC COMPENSATION FOR AUTHORS. 46ISRAEL . 47CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 47RIGHTS HOLDERS AND STAKEHOLDERS . 48TRANSFER OF RIGHTS . 48ITALY . 50CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 50THE DOCTRINE QUALIFICATION . 50AUTHORS . 51STAKEHOLDERS. 52RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AUTHORS AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIOS . 52POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS . 53JAPAN . 53CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 54RIGHTS HOLDERS AND STAKEHOLDERS . 54REMUNERATION . 55KENYA . 56CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 56RIGHTS HOLDERS AND STAKEHOLDERS . 57FOLKLORE AND THE PUBLIC DOMAIN . 58REPUBLIC OF KOREA . 59CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 59AUTHOR-RELATED ISSUES REGARDING VIDEO GAMES . 59LEGAL STATUS OF PROFESSIONAL GAMERS. 60STAKEHOLDERS IN THE VALUE CHAIN OF VIDEO GAMES . 60EMPLOYEE-RELATED ISSUSES IN THE CREATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 61TRANSFER OF RIGHTS . 61

page 4RIGHT TO BROADCAST GAMES PLAYED BY PROFESSIONAL GAMERS . 62RUSSIAN FEDERATION . 62CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 63AUTHORS . 64TRANSFER OF RIGHTS . 65ECONOMIC COMPENSATION FOR AUTHORS. 66RWANDA . 66CLASSIFICATION . 67CONTRIBUTORS . 67FOLKLORE AND THE PUBLIC DOMAIN . 68SENEGAL . 68CLASSIFICATION . 69CONTRIBUTORS AND TRANSFER OF RIGHTS. 69FOLKLORE AND THE PUBLIC DOMAIN . 70SINGAPORE . 71CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 71RIGHTS HOLDERS AND STAKEHOLDERS . 73RIGHTS REGIME . 73ECONOMIC COMPENSATION . 73SOUTH AFRICA . 74CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 74AUTHORS . 74STAKEHOLDERS AND TRANSFER OF RIGHTS . 75FINANCIAL COMPENSATION AVAILABLE FOR AUTHORS AND OWNERS . 76CONTRIBUTIONS BY PLAYERS INVOLVED IN INTERACTIVE ONLINE GAMING . 76SPAIN . 77CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 77STAKEHOLDERS, AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS . 79WHO OWNS THE RIGHTS . 80COMPENSATION. 81URUGUAY . 82CLASSIFICATION . 82THE BUSINESS REALITY IN URUGUAY . 83RIGHTS HOLDERS AND STAKEHOLDERS . 83COMPENSATION. 84SWEDEN . 85CLASSIFICATION OF VIDEO GAMES . 85RIGHTS HOLDERS AND STAKEHOLDERS . 86TRANSFER OF RIGHTS .