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SEDL – Advancing Research, Improving EducationA New Wave of EvidenceThe Impact of School, Family, and CommunityConnections on Student AchievementAnnual Synthesis 2002Anne T. HendersonKaren L. Mapp

SEDL – Advancing Research, Improving EducationA New Wave of EvidenceThe Impact of School, Family, and CommunityConnections on Student AchievementAnnual Synthesis 2002Anne T. HendersonKaren L. MappContributorsAmy AverettDeborah DonnellyCatherine JordanEvangelina OrozcoJoan ButtramMarilyn FowlerMargaret MyersLacy Wood

National Center for Family and Community Connections with SchoolsSEDL4700 Mueller Blvd.Austin, Texas 78723Voice: 512-476-6861 or 800-476-6861Fax: 512-476-2286Web site: www.sedl.orgE-mail: [email protected] 2002 by Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL). All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage andretrieval system, without permission in writing from SEDL or by submitting a copyright requestform accessible at http://www.sedl.org/about/copyright request.html on the SEDL Web site.This publication was produced in whole or in part with funds from the Institute of EducationSciences, U.S. Department of Education, under contract number ED-01-CO-0009. The contentherein does not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Education, or any otheragency of the U.S. government, or any other source.

To the late Susan McAllister SwapFor more than 20 years, Sue worked tirelessly with both parents and educators, exploring how to develop closer, richer, deeper partnerships.In her last post, she directed with distinction the Center on Families,Communities, Schools, and Children’s Learning at Wheelock College. Herfinal book, Developing Home-School Partnerships, is a classic. Her family, hermany friends, and her colleagues were deeply saddened by her untimelypassing. We recall her fondly as a wonderful person with great warmthand many talents. Her contributions to the field and her inspiring leadership will long be remembered.

Table of ContentsList of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viAcknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3A New Wave of Evidence—In Short . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9About the StudiesHow We Selected the Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13What the Studies Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Limitations of the Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18How to Get Copies of the Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Synthesis of Research StudiesHow the Studies Define Family Involvement and Student Achievement . . . . . . . . . 21Studies on the Impact of Parent and CommunityInvolvement on Student Achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Studies on Effective Strategies to ConnectSchools, Families, and Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Studies on Parent and Community OrganizingEfforts to Improve Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Recommendations: Putting These Findings into Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73The Research Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79Appendix: Looking Back—A Brief History and Key Studies, 1974–95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201About the Authors and Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227Southwest Educational Development Laboratoryv

A New Wave of Evidence - The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connectionson Student AchievementList of Tables1. Studies by General Topic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152. Studies by Age and Grade Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163. Studies by Design Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174. Six Types of Parent Involvement for Grades 8 and 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225. Combined Effect of Teacher Support and High Parent Involvementon Grade Point Averages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326. Combined Effect of Student Sense of Belonging and HighParent Involvement on Grade Point Averages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327. Examples of the Reported Impact of Community Organizing, by Indicator. . . . . . . . 558. Overview of Effects in HIPPY Cohorts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859. Activities Related to Six Types of Parent Involvement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9110. Percentage of Difference between High and Low AchieversThat Can Be Explained by Two Clusters of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9711. Examples of the Reported Impact of Community Organizing, by Indicator . . . . . . . 11412. Combined Effect of Teacher Support and High Parent Involvementon Grade Point Averages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11713. Combined Effect of Student Sense of Belonging and High ParentInvolvement on Grade Point Averages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11714. Effect of Tutorials by Community Volunteers on Reading Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12415. Measures Used for Early Head Start Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14616. Impact of Three Parental Actions on Early Head Start Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14617. Impact of Parent Involvement on Reading and Retention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15218. Effects of Three Supports That Favor High Achievement onStudent Outcomes, by Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16719. Effects of Family Background Risk Factors That Favor HighAchievement on Student Outcomes, by Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16720. Effects of Title I Parent Involvement on Math and Reading Comprehension . . . . . . 17221. Proportions of Correct Answers in Math and Literacy Tests in Study 1 . . . . . . . . . . 18722. Proportions of Correct Answers in Math and Literacy Tests in Study 2 . . . . . . . . . . 18823. Proportion of Fellows Carrying Out Skills Either “Often” or “Very Often” . . . . . . . . . 200viNational Center for Family & Community Connections with Schools

AcknowledgmentsThe idea for the Evidence publications first began in 1980 at the National Committee forCitizens in Education. Stan Salett had discovered a study that linked schools with PTAs tohigher student achievement and wondered if there might be more relevant research. BillRioux thought something should be published about it if there were studies available, andCarl Marburger refused to testify or speak publicly about the research unless he had rocksolid information. Their beliefs led to the publication of The Evidence Grows (1981). BillRioux then insisted on two updates—The Evidence Continues to Grow (1987) and A NewGeneration of Evidence: The Family Is Critical to Student Achievement (1994). ChrissieBamber guided the development and marketing of all early three editions.This new Evidence publication is the result of a true collaborative effort. In 2000 theU.S. Department of Education’s Office of Educational Research and Improvementcharged the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory’s new National Center forFamily and Community Connections with Schools (the Center) with doing an annualreview and synthesis of current research about family and community connections. Inearly 2001 the Center’s staff and steering committee began making plans to documentthe growing evidence that family and community connections with schools make adifference in student achievement and success. About the same time, Karen L. Mapp,president of the Institute for Responsive Education (IRE), and Anne Henderson, seniorconsultant for the Institute for Education and Social Policy, who had written the earlierEvidence publications, began conversations about an updated version. As a member ofthe Center’s steering committee, Karen Mapp knew about the Center’s plans and suggested that the Center partner with IRE and Anne Henderson to do this. The Center agreedthat a partnership made sense. So its staff began searching for, reading, analyzing, andannotating the research studies while Anne Henderson and Karen Mapp conceptualizedand wrote this newest Evidence publication.The Center staff—Amy Averett, Joan Buttram, Deborah Donnelly, Marilyn Fowler,Catherine Jordan, Margaret Myers, Evangelina Orozco, and Lacy Wood—all contributedsignificantly to the content as well, while Artie Stockton provided support and encouragement. At the Institute for Responsive Education, Carol Strickland helped summarizestudies, and the rest of the IRE staff—Linda Peterson, Cathy Meza, Brendan McCaffery,and Rashaud Pettway—kept things running. Design consultants Jane Thurmond andShaila Abdullah provided the design and layout services, Nancy Richey and JohannaFranke edited the final drafts, and Linda Webster prepared the index.Southwest Educational Development Laboratory1

A New Wave of Evidence - The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connectionson Student AchievementSeveral colleagues steered the project toward important studies, including their ownwork. We especially thank Janet Chrispeels, Reg Clark, and Joyce Epstein. Our reviewpanel offered excellent advice, critical comment (sometimes very critical), and fine language. Don Davies chaired the panel and served as official reviewer, bringing his longand fruitful experience to bear on this work. Oliver Moles sent innumerable studiesand offered careful comments throughout the process. Warlene Gary hosted an initialreview panel meeting, gave useful advice about reaching practitioners, and helpedarrange for the debut of Evidence at the National Education Association 2002 annualmeeting in Dallas, Texas. Sue Ferguson, a steadfast friend to this work, provided eversolid and practical advice. Norm Fruchter gave insight into the history of communityorganizing and, as always, put his finger on the weak spots.The Center’s steering committee members gave their advice and expertise to thedevelopment of this research synthesis: Howard Adelman, Center for Mental Healthin Schools, University of California, Los Angeles; Kelly A. Butler, Parents for PublicSchools, Inc.; Nancy Chavkin, Center for Children and Families, Southwest Texas StateUniversity; Pat Edwards, National Center for Community Education; Joyce Epstein,Center on School, Family, and Community Partnerships, Johns Hopkins University;Arnold Fege, Public Education Network; Ira Harkavy, Center for Community partnerships, University of Pennsylvania; Milbrey McLaughlin, Stanford Center on Adolescence,Stanford University; Maria R. Montecel, Intercultural Development Research Association;Terry Peterson, Network Resource for After-School and Community Education,University of South Carolina; Robert Pianta, University of Virginia; Estus Smith, KetteringFoundation; and Bobby Starnes, The National Center for Collaborative Teaching.No acknowledgments would be complete without recognizing Paul Weckstein, KathyBoundy, and Larry Searcy at the Center for Law and Education who continue to promote Evidence and make sure that Congress and federal agencies take this researchinto account as they develop education policy. They have also worked tirelessly toprotect the rights of low-income children to attend public schools that are excellent,equitable, and open to their families’ full participation.Karen Mapp and Anne Henderson, the authors, want to thank their families—BasilHenderson, “who has endured through all four editions of Evidence, served as genialhost for meetings, helped keep the stacks of paper from drifting into chaos, andoffered judicious advice,” and Donal Fox, “who gave his gift of music, his deliciousgourmet cooking, and his constant love and support for Karen during the highs andlows of the writing process.”Finally, as all of the collaborators agree, support from families is what this report isall about.2National Center for Family & Community Connections with Schools

Forewordby Don DaviesIf you are a new principal in a troubled inner-city school under orders fromyour superintendent to raise student test scores and involve parents, whatshould you do?If I were you, I would look at the results of studies that show a convincing linkbetween student achievement and various approaches to parent and communityinvolvement. You could begin by checking out this new report where you’lldiscover several ideas