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WIRELESS OR WIREMORE?Theory and practice forIndustrial WLAN installationsFred Weggelaar Network engineer, Consultant & TrainerHirschmann Multimedia BVdep. : Hirschmann Network Solutions1986- 1999: RF & CATV development1999- 2015: Industrial NetworksEngineering, Support & ConsultancyWireless or Wiremore?1Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

THE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION ANtopologyWireless or Wiremore?2Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

ACCOUSTIC COMMUNICATION IS NO OPTION Acoustic is also wireless, but no option for modern industrial communication Please be aware: the air is a shared medium Electromagnetic waves are a better solution. If we can reach and connect only the communicationparticipants Comparable with audience in a stadium. Please be aware: the air (ether) is a shared medium The air is full of EM signals Fortunately we can’t see most of them But if we could Wireless or Wiremore?3Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

THE WIRELESS CHALLENGENo discussion: A wired connection is most reliable but: Now a growing number of applicationsneed or like to have wireless WirelessTarget: Optimal application connectivity but: It is a bit freaky with thiswireless technologyWireless link is least reliable chain,so WLAN optimalization is the challenge!Obvious solution: High density of AP’s and antennas, resulting in a lot of cablingWire more for Wireless is sometimes the resultWireless or Wiremore?4Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

OPTICAL WIRELESS Only for line of sight applicationsInsensible for radio interferenceWavelength in Infra red spectrum LED systems Due to optical divergence,applicable only for short distancesand low data rate(Profibus at several meters) Lasersystems Depending on transmit power,applicable for several kilometerswith high data rate(GigabitEthernet at severalkilometers)Wireless or Wiremore?785 nm, 4 x 25 mW 1000mtr5Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

RF WIRELESS (BROADBAND) Operates with line of sight and through obstaclesRelative insensible for weather conditionsLicenced and Licence free frequenciesBe aware of the WLAN overhead data Gross data is almost double the net data Point-to-(Multi)Point connections Directional antennas create a long traject(1 1000 Mbps at 15 1 kilometers) Area coverage Communication is possible. Depending onantenna type and -position, TX-power, obstaclesand process environment(1 tot 300 Mbps at centimeters up to severalhundreds of meters)Wireless or Wiremore?6Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

WIRELESS GETTING STARTEDApproach: By trial and error Just buy and try Or by engineering: Determine the level of engineering Simulation and if possible: Passive Site Survey or Active Site Survey Determine the technology (application requirements for data capacity)- What kind of clients are to be used?- Origin of data: SCADA, (non) critical control data, RIO, Video, Audio, combinations Prefer the technology Determine the topology and type of connection- PtP, WDS, Area coverage, Roaming clients Prefer the topology and antenna types Determine the environmental conditions Select the technology, antenna types and accessories Determine the required configuration and security level Implement the required configurationWireless or Wiremore?8Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 1a: SIMULATION Software tools to create 2D or 3D simulations: BAT Planner (by Belden-Hirschmann ) Ekahau Site Survey (by Ekahau) AirMagnet (by Fluke Networks) RF3D (by Psiber) Visiwave (by AZO Technologies, Inc) Acrylic Heatmaps (by Tarlogic Security) Tamograph (by Tamos) Fortiplanner (by Fortinet) LAN Planner (by Motorola) FL WST (by Phoenix Contact) Sinema (by Siemens) Especially observe: Signal strength Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)Wireless or Wiremore?9Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 1b: SITE SURVEY - GOAL 1 Goal 1: Determine optimal antenna locations Advice for hardware and antenna locations Observing the structural condition Often a dilemma between RF-Optimal and realizableHeat, Wind, Moisture, Reflections, Moving Clients, Aggressive H 2S gas, Rocks, Flames, VibrationsWireless or Wiremore?10Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 1b: SITE SURVEY – GOAL 2 Goal 2: Advice for frequency use- Even if there is nothing to see - There is a lot to measureCheck channel availability 2.4 GHz is most used ISM band.Jokingly called “The Toy Band” - Like already occupied channels2.4GHz WIFI band5GHz WIFI bands5 GHz has more capacity,but is not integrated in all industrial equipment yetsource:Wireless or Wiremore?112013Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 1b: SITE SURVEY – GOAL 3 Goal 3: Understanding the operational situation on site Environmental conditions and structures (deflection, reflection, attenuation) Propagation changes depending on process stepsHeat, Wind, Moisture, Reflections, Moving Clients, Aggressive H 2S gas, Rocks, Flames, VibrationsWireless or Wiremore?12Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 2: TECHNOLOGY SELECTIONPassive clients, low cost, quick connectionLow data rate, client identification onlyIEEE 802.15.4IEEE 802.15.1IEEE 802.11MMWWireless or Wiremore?2.4 GHz DSSS, time synchronized, self-organizing,self-healing mesh architecture, embedded in sensorsRel. short distances ( 100m), sensor data only (250 kb/s)2.4 GHz frequency hopping technology, Easy set upRel. short distances ( 100m), control data only (1 Mb/s)2.4 GHz & 5 GHz standards, Scalable, High capacity,Roaming Clients, Video suitable,Development of “state of the art standards”BYOD & RADAR disturbance, Rogue AP’s (Man i.t. Middle)60 – 86 GHz applications, PtP Privacy, very high capacity,Line of sight only, static locations13Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 3: TOPOLOGY SELECTION Depending on the application, one of the following topologies will be applicable Access-Points and Clients ClientLAN AP Client Client Client Point-to-Point links Bridge links (with or without Clients) APLANStandardized“infrastructure” networkNon-standardized Client Client AP Client Wireless Distibution System multi-hop-PtP link (with or without Clients) Mesh redundancy*LANWireless or Wiremore? AP AP Client Client AP*14 AP Client* ClientLAN AP APLANHirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 3: ANTENNA RADIATION MODEL SELECTION (1) Depending on the application, one of the following radiation models will be applicable Omni directional antennasG 2 dBiWireless or Wiremore?G 6 dBi15Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 3: ANTENNA RADIATION MODEL SELECTION (2) Directional (patch) antennas & vehicle antennasG 9 dBiWireless or Wiremore?G 6 dBi16Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 3: ANTENNA RADIATION MODEL SELECTION (3) Sector antennasG 16 dBiWireless or Wiremore?G 20 dBi17Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 3: ANTENNA RADIATION MODEL SELECTION (4) Special antennasRadiating CableDual Slant & MIMO antennas-35Distance to compatiblemobile antenna 10 cm.G depending on modelG -35 dBiWireless or Wiremore?18Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 4: SELECTING THE RIGHT EQUIPMENT Take notice of the environmental conditions An Antenna is just some (printed) wire in a box, so why the expensives? My Access Point is a A-brand, so why the expensives?Reliable Industrial applications deserve well protected devices Water, aggressive gasses, flames, high temps, temp shocks, wind, salt, surges, etc.Wireless or Wiremore?19Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 4: SELECTING THE RIGHT ACCESSORIES Take notice of the possibilities of installing equipment There are many coax cables . Choose the right one!Devices internal( 10 cm.) Outside cabinets (2 – 20 m.)Inside cabinets(1-3 m.)Industrial applications deserve well protected devices Water, aggressive gasses, flames, high temps, temp shocks, wind, salt, surges, etc.Surge ProtectorsWireless or Wiremore?Cabinets for protection against:temp extremes, chemicals, water, etc20Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

STEP 5: IMPLEMENT THE OPTIMAL CONFIGURATION Autonomous or Controller based WLAN? Depending on the number of AP’s and manageability requirements Single SSID, Multiple SSID, VLAN over WLAN? Depending on the number of applications and demand for data separation Depending on specs and applications Access Point or Access Client mode? AP: Infrastructure mode, Ad-hoc mode, Point-to-(Multi)Point, AC: Roaming parameters RF-path Redundancy? Spanning Tree / PRP Security Intrusion protection, 802.11i ( WPA2/PSK) or 802.1x (server) Authentication,Encryption White listing, Black listing, MAC listing, interstandard compatibility FirewallingWireless or Wiremore?21Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

RF-REDUNDANCY. TRADITIONAL PROTOCOL Increased reliability: one RF path in stand by Two radios per device Redundancy based on LAN-protocol STP Recovery time in seconds Transparent for Industrial Ethernet protocols Two simultaneous WLAN links2.4GHz5GHzWireless NetworkWired NetworkWireless or Wiremore?Wired Network22Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

RF-REDUNDANCY. PRP IN POINT-TO-POINT-CONNECTIONS Increased reliability: Two active RF paths Two radios per device Redundancy based on IEC62439-3 PRP Recovery time 0 seconds Transparent for Industrial Ethernet protocols Two simultaneous WLAN links containing identical data: Redbox is filtering deviceAP‘s use port grouping for Redundancy Box (Redbox)transparent transmission viatwo independent WLAN linksLANLANWLAN ADoubled WLAN Bridge Link(Point-to-Point)WLAN B Wireless is Wiremore!Wireless or Wiremore?Redbox doubles everypacket / ends PRP connection23Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

RF-REDIMDANCY. PRP IN SMART ROAMING INFRASTRUCTURENETWORKS Increased reliability Two radios per device (AP and AC) Redundancy based on IEC62439-3 PRP Transparent for Industrial Ethernet protocols Recovery time 0 seconds Two simultaneous WLAN links containingidentical data: Redbox is filtering device Client radios roam on different moments Connection guaranteed byat least one WLANWLAN BWLAN BWLAN Clientin PRP doubledWLANWLAN BWLAN Clientin PRP doubled WLANWLAN B Wireless is wiremore!WLAN Clientin PRP doubledWLANRedBoxLANLAN A LAN B separated by VLAN on same cableWireless or Wiremore?24Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

PITFALLS FOR NON-RF TECHNICIANSEnvironmental conditions: Heat, Wind, Moisture, Rocks, Flames,Aggressive H2S gas, Vibrations, tapingRF knowledge:Wireless or Wiremore?Reflections, screening, Grounding,Bending radius, Propagation, PolarizationAntenna pattern,25Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

RESULT EXAMPLE OF ENGINEERING APPROACH (1) Project: waste water installation 2.4 to 5 GHz migrationView in Google Earth Define required applications and connections site surveySimulation heat map As-built heatmap Result: stable operationProjectpartners:Wireless or Wiremore?26Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

RESULT EXAMPLE OF ENGINEERING APPROACH (2) Project: New Container Terminal 2.4 & 5 GHz View in Google Earth Define required connections Site Surveys at several stages Simulation heat map As-built heatmap Result: Interruption free operationProjectpartners:Wireless or Wiremore?27Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015

QUESTIONS?Please visit us at the exhibition [email protected] or Wiremore?28Hirschmann Multimedia FHI-IE2015