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VOCABULARY LISTCambridge English: PreliminaryCambridge English: Preliminary for SchoolsCambridge English: Preliminary Wordlist UCLES 2012

Introduction to the Cambridge English: Preliminary andPreliminary for Schools Vocabulary ListThe Cambridge English: Preliminary and Preliminary for Schools Vocabulary List givesteachers a guide to the vocabulary needed when preparing students for the Preliminaryand Preliminary for Schools examinations.Background to the listThe Preliminary and Preliminary for Schools Vocabulary List was originally developed byCambridge English in consultation with external consultants to guide item writers whoproduce materials for the Preliminary and Preliminary for Schools examination. It includesvocabulary from the Council of Europe's Threshold (1990) specification and othervocabulary which corpus evidence shows is high frequency.The list covers vocabulary appropriate to the B1 level on the Common EuropeanFramework of Reference (CEFR) and includes receptive vocabulary (words that thecandidate is expected to understand but which is not the focus of a question) andproductive vocabulary (words that the candidate needs to know to answer a question).The list does not provide an exhaustive list of all words which appear on the Preliminaryand Preliminary for Schools question papers and candidates should not confine theirstudy of vocabulary to the list alone.How the list is updatedThe vocabulary of English changes over time, with words being added and otherwords falling into disuse. In order to maintain its currency, the Preliminary andPreliminary for Schools Vocabulary List is updated on an annual basis, with the decisionto add or remove words being informed by reference to the Cambridge Learner Corpusand English Profile Wordlists.The Cambridge Learner Corpus is a collection of over 44 million words of English,based upon evidence of language use by learners from all over the world and fromwhich the English Vocabulary Profile has developed. The English Vocabulary Profileshows the most common words and phrases that learners of English need to know inBritish or American English. The meaning of each word or phrase in the wordlists hasbeen assigned a level between A1 and B2 on the CEFR.A preview version of the English Vocabulary Profile can be accessed by visitingthe website: http://www.englishprofile.orgOrganisation of the list Word setsSome categories of words that a learner at this level might be expected to know, e.g.days of the week, are not included in the alphabetical list but are listed in Appendix 1.Although 'grammar words' (pronouns, modal verbs, etc.) are included, the 'LanguageofthePreliminary and Preliminary for SchoolsSpecification' sectionHandbook (availablefrom http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/) should be consultedfor a more complete listing.2012Page 2 of 51Cambridge English: Preliminary and Preliminary for SchoolsVocabulary List

ExemplificationExample phrases and sentences showing how words might be used are given onlywhere words with different meanings need to be constrained. For example, heel isfollowed by 'I can't walk in high heels' -this shows that heel is limited to the idea ofshoes: candidates are not expected to know other meanings, such as the part of thebody. Multi-word VerbsMulti-word verbs are not included in the list if they have a literal meaning and arecomposed of verbs and particles already in the list. Examples of 'literal' multi-wordverbs are come into, sit down, as in 'Why not come into the kitchen and sit down?' If themeaning of the verb is not transparent, e.g. find out, get along, give in, then the verb islisted and an example of usage given. Topic listsIn Appendix 2, words have been grouped together under common Preliminary andPreliminary for Schools themes, such as 'Food and Drink', 'House and Home' and'Sport'.Unsuitable topicsCambridge English examinations must not contain anything that might offend or upsetcandidates, potentially affect their performance or distract them during theexamination. A number of 'sensitive' topics are considered unsuitable for use inPreliminary and Preliminary for Schools, for example war and politics, and vocabularyrelating to these is not included in the Preliminary and Preliminary for SchoolsVocabulary List.Personal vocabularyThe content of the Preliminary and Preliminary for Schools Vocabulary List is general innature and is unlikely to cover completely the productive vocabulary that may berequired by all candidates. Candidates should know the specific lexis they will need todescribe themselves and their lives, for example hobbies, likes and dislikes.AbbreviationsAbbreviations used in the Preliminary and Preliminary for Schools Vocabulary List are:abbrevadjadvavAm EngBr Engconj detexclammv nphrvpiprepprep phrpronsingabbreviation or acronymadjectiveadverbauxiliary verbAmerican EnglishBritish Englishconjunctiondeterminerexclamationvmodal verbnounphrasal verbplural prepositionprepositional phrasepronounsingularverbSummary of points to be noted The list does not include every word that may appear on a Cambridge English:Preliminary and Preliminary for Schools paper.The list covers receptive and productive vocabulary.The list is updated every year.2012Page 3 of 51Cambridge English: Preliminary and Preliminary for SchoolsVocabulary List

ContentsA .5B .7C .9D . 12E. 14F . 15G . 17H . 19I . 20J . 21K . 22L . 22M . 24N . 25O . 26P. 27Q . 30R . 31S. 33T . 37U . 40V. 41W. 41Y. 43Z . 432012Page 4 of 51Cambridge English: Preliminary and Preliminary for SchoolsVocabulary List

Aa/an (det)activity (n)agency (n)ability (n)actor (n)ago (adv)able (adj)actress (n)agree (v)actually (adv)ahead (adv) be able toabout (adv & prep) about 500 students (adv) The film is about a small boy. (prep)She seems a bit strict at first,aim (n & v)but she's actually very nice.air (n)Are you actually going to takeair conditioning (n)the job?air force (n)above (adj, adv & prep)ad (advertisement) (n)airline (n)abroad (adv)add (v)airport (n)absent (adj)addition (n)alarm (n)absolutely (adv) in additionalarm clock (n)The movie was absolutelyaddress (n)album (n)awful.admire (v)alike (adv)admission (n)alive (adj)accent(n) She has a beautiful French charges/cost/priceall (adj, adv, det & pron)admit (v)all right/alright (adj,adv & exclam)accept (v)adult (adj & n)allow (v)access (n)advance (n)almost (adv)accent. disabled access internet access book in advancealone (adv & adj)advanced (adj)along (adv & prep)accident (n)advantage (n)aloud (adv)accommodation (n)adventure (n)alphabet (n)accompany (v)advert (n)already (adv)according to (prep phr)advertise (v)also (adv)account (n)advertisement (n)although (conj)accountant (n)advice (n)altogether (adv)accurate (adj)advise (v)always (adv)ache (n)aeroplane (n)a.m (adv)achieve (v)afford (v)amazed (adj)across (adv & prep)afraid (adj)amazing (adj)act (n & v)after (adv,conj & prep)ambition (n)in the second act (of the play)afternoon (n)ambulance (n)(n)afterwards (adv)among (amongst) (prep) to act in a play (v)again (adv)amount (n) to act strangely (v)against (prep)amusing (adj)action (n)age (n)an (det)active (adj)aged(adj)ancient (adj) 2012Page 5 of 51Cambridge English: Preliminary and Preliminary for SchoolsVocabulary List

and (conj)apply (v)at all (prep phr)angry (adj)appointment (n)at first (prep phr)animal (n)approach (v)athlete (n)ankle (n)approve (v)athletics (n)anniversary (n)architect (n)at last (prep phr)announce (v)architecture (n)at least (prep phr)announcement (n)area (n)atmosphere (n)annoy (v)argue (v)at once (prep phr)annual (adj)argument (n)at present (prep phr)another (det & pron)arm (n)attach (v)answer (n & v)armchair (n)attack (n & v)answerphone (n)army (n)attempt (v)ant (n)around (adv & prep)attend (v)antique (adj & n)arrange (v)attention (n)anxious (adj)arrangement (n)at the same time (prep phr)any (det & pron)arrest (v)attitude (n)anybody (pron)arrival (n)attract (v)anymore (adv)arrive (v)attraction (n)anyone (pron)art (n)attractive (adj)anything (pron)article (n)audience (n)anyway (adv)artist (n)aunt (n)anywhere (adv)as (conj & prep)author (n)apart (adv)ashamed (adj)autumn (n) (Br Eng) (Am Eng:apart from (adv)ask (v)fall)apartment (n)asleep (adj)available (adj)apartment building (n)aspirin (n)average (adj & n)apologise (v)assistant (n)avoid (v)apology (n)as well (as) (prep & adv)awake (adj)appear (v)at (prep)away (adv)appearance (n)at [email protected] (n)awful (adj) My email address isapple (n)application (n)[email protected] 6 of 51Cambridge English: Preliminary and Preliminary for SchoolsVocabulary List

Bbaby (n)bathtub (n)between (prep & adv)babysit (v)battery (n)beyond (prep & adv)babysitter (n)battle (n)bicycle (n)back (adv, adj & n)bay (n)big (adj)background (n)be (av & v)bike (n)backpack (n)beach (n)bill (n)backpacker(n)bean (n)backpacking (n)bear(n)bin (n)backwards (adv)beard (n)biography (n)bad (adj)beat (v)biology (n)badly (adv)beautiful (adj)bird (n)badminton (n)beauty (n)birth (n)bag (n)because (conj)birthday (n)baggage (n)because of (prep phr)biscuit (n)bake (v)become (v)bit (n)baker (n)bed (n)bite (v)balcony (n)bedroom (n)bitter (adj)bald (adj)bee (n)black (adj & n)ball (n)beef (n)blackboard (n)ballet (n)before (prep,adv & conj)blame (v)balloon (n)begin (v)blank (adj)banana (n)beginner (n)band (n)beginning (n)blanket (n)bandage (n)behave (v)bleed (v)bank (n)behaviour (n)blind (adj)bank account (n)behind (prep & adv)block (n)banking (n)believe (v)bar (n)bell(n)barbecue (n & v)belong (v)blog (n)baseball (n)below (adv & prep)blogger (n)base on (phr v)belt (n) beneath (prep)blond(e) (adj)basic (adj)benefit (n)blood (n)basin (n)be over (phr v)blouse (n)basket (n)basketball (n) electricity bill a blank piece of paper Shall we walk round theblock? The game is over- you're toolate!blow (v)blue (adj & n)bat (n)beside (adv & prep)board (n & v)bath (n & v)besides (prep)board game (n)bathing suit (n)best (adj & adv)boarding pass (n)bathroom (n)better (adj & adv)boat (n)2012Page 7 of 51Cambridge English: Preliminary and Preliminary for SchoolsVocabulary List

body (n)boy (n)brush (n & v)boil (v)boyfriend (n)bucket (n)boiled (adj)bracelet (n)bug (n)bold (adj)brain (n)build (v)bomb (n & v)brake (n & v)building (n)bone (n)branch (n)bulb (n)book (n & v)brand new (adj)bookcase (n)brave (adj)bull (n)booking (n)bread (n)bunch (n) I have a booking for the19th.booking office (n) light bulbbreak (n & v) a bunch of flowersbreak down (phr v) a great bunch of friends The car has broken down.burger (n)bookshelf (n)breakfast (n)burn (v)bookshop (n) (Br Eng) (Am Eng:break in (phr v)burning (adj)bookstore)bookstore (n) (Am Eng) (Br Eng:bookshop) Someone broke in and stolethe computer.bus (n)break up (phr v)business (n) When does school breakboot (n) a pair of boots the boot of the car (Am Eng: