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Portable Course BookletCCNA ExplorationCourse BookletNetwork FundamentalsScalingNetworksVersion 4.01Version 6ciscopress.comciscopress.com00 Course Booklet FM.indd i09/05/17 9:11 AM

iiScaling Networks v6 Course BookletScaling Networks v6 Course BookletCopyright 2017 Cisco Systems, Inc.Published by:Cisco Press800 East 96th StreetIndianapolis, IN 46240 USAAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted inany form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without writtenpermission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in areview.Printed in the United States of AmericaFirst Printing May 2017Library of Congress Control Number: 2017936409ISBN-13: 978-1-58713-430-2ISBN-10: 1-58713-430-6Editor-in-ChiefMark TaubAlliances Manager,Cisco PressRon FliggeExecutive EditorMary Beth RayManaging EditorSandra SchroederSenior Project EditorTonya SimpsonEditorial AssistantVanessa EvansCover DesignerChuti PrasertsithIndexerErika MillenCompositioncodeMantraWarning and DisclaimerThis book is designed to provide information about Cisco NetworkingAcademy Scaling Networks course. Every effort has been made to make thisbook as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness isimplied.The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, andCisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any personor entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the informationcontained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that mayaccompany it.The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are notnecessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.00 Course Booklet FM.indd ii09/05/17 9:11 AM

iiiTrademark AcknowledgmentsAll terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc., cannot attest to the accuracy of this information.Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or servicemark.Feedback InformationAt Cisco Press, our goal is to create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and value. Eachbook is crafted with care and precision, undergoing rigorous development that involves the uniqueexpertise of members from the professional technical community.Readers’ feedback is a natural continuation of this process. If you have any comments regarding how wecould improve the quality of this book, or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs, you can contactus through email at [email protected] Please make sure to include the book title and ISBN inyour message.We greatly appreciate your assistance.Reader ServicesRegister your copy at www.ciscopress.com/title/9781587134302 for convenient access todownloads, updates, and corrections as they become available. To start the registration process, go towww.ciscopress.com/register and log in or create an account*. Enter the product ISBN 9781587134302and click Submit. When the process is complete, you will find any available bonus content underRegistered Products.*Be sure to check the box that you would like to hear from us to receive exclusive discounts on futureeditions of this product.Americas HeadquartersCisco Systems, Inc.San Jose, CAAsia Pacific HeadquartersCisco Systems (USA) Pte. Ltd.SingaporeEurope HeadquartersCisco Systems International BV Amsterdam,The NetherlandsCisco has more than 200 offices worldwide. Addresses, phone numbers, and fax numbers are listed on the Cisco Website at www.cisco.com/go/offices.Cisco and the Cisco logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Cisco and/or its affiliates in the U.S. and other countries. To view a list of Cisco trademarks,go to this URL: www.cisco.com/go/trademarks. Third party trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner doesnot imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (1110R)00 Course Booklet FM.indd iii09/05/17 9:11 AM

ivScaling Networks v6 Course BookletContents at a GlanceChapter 1LAN DesignChapter 2Scaling VLANsChapter 3STPChapter 4EtherChannel and HSRPChapter 5Dynamic RoutingChapter 6EIGRPChapter 7EIGRP Tuning and TroubleshootingChapter 8Single-Area OSPFChapter 9Multiarea OSPFChapter 10OSPF Tuning and TroubleshootingIndex00 Course Booklet FM.indd iv11539698710914516519520923109/05/17 9:11 AM

vContentsChapter 1LAN Design1.01Introduction to LAN Design11.0.1.2 Class Activity - Network by Design11.1 Campus Wired LAN Designs 21.1.1 Cisco Validated Designs 21.1.1.1 The Need to Scale the Network 21.1.1.2 Hierarchical Design Model 21.1.2 Expanding the Network 31.1.2.1 Design for Scalability 31.1.2.2 Planning for Redundancy 41.1.2.3 Failure Domains 41.1.2.4 Increasing Bandwidth 51.1.2.5 Expanding the Access Layer 51.1.2.6 Fine-tuning Routing Protocols 51.1.2.7 Activity - Identify Scalability Terminology1.2Selecting Network Devices661.2.1 Switch Hardware 61.2.1.1 Switch Platforms 61.2.1.2 Port Density 71.2.1.3 Forwarding Rates 71.2.1.4 Power over Ethernet 81.2.1.5 Multilayer Switching 81.2.1.6 Activity - Selecting Switch Hardware 81.2.1.7 Packet Tracer - Comparing 2960 and 3560 Switches1.2.2 Router Hardware 91.2.2.1 Router Requirements 91.2.2.2 Cisco Routers 91.2.2.3 Router Hardware 101.2.2.4 Activity - Identify the Router Category 101.2.3 Managing Devices 101.2.3.1 Managing IOS Files and Licensing 101.2.3.2 In-Band versus Out-of-Band Management 101.2.3.3 Basic Router CLI Commands 111.2.3.4 Basic Router Show Commands 111.2.3.5 Basic Switch CLI commands 121.2.3.6 Basic Switch Show Commands 121.3Summary8121.3.1.1 Class Activity - Layered Network Design Simulation1.3.1.2 Basic Switch Configuration 131.3.1.3 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 131.3.1.4 Summary 1312Chapter 1 Quiz 14Chapter 1 Exam 14Your Chapter Notes 14Chapter 2 Scaling VLANs 152.0Introduction2.0.100 Course Booklet FM.indd v15Welcome 1509/05/17 9:11 AM

viScaling Networks v6 Course Booklet2.1VTP, Extended VLANs, and DTP152.1.1 VTP Concepts and Operation 152.1.1.1 VTP Overview 152.1.1.2 VTP Modes 162.1.1.3 VTP Advertisements 172.1.1.4 VTP Versions 172.1.1.5 Default VTP configuration 182.1.1.6 VTP Caveats 192.1.1.7 Identify VTP Concepts and Operations202.1.2 VTP Configuration 202.1.2.1 VTP Configuration Overview 202.1.2.2 Step 1 - Configure the VTP Server 202.1.2.3 Step 2 - Configure the VTP Domain Name and Password 202.1.2.4 Step 3 - Configure the VTP Clients 212.1.2.5 Step 4 - Configure VLANs on the VTP Server 212.1.2.6 Step 5 - Verify that the VTP Clients Have Received the New VLANInformation 212.1.3 Extended VLANs 212.1.3.1 VLAN Ranges on Catalyst Switches2.1.3.2 Creating a VLAN 222.1.3.3 Assigning Ports to VLANs 232.1.3.4 Verifying VLAN Information 232.1.3.5 Configuring Extended VLANs 24212.1.4 Dynamic Trunking Protocol 242.1.4.1 Introduction to DTP 242.1.4.2 Negotiated Interface Modes 252.1.4.3 Activity - Predict DTP Behavior 252.1.4.4 Packet Tracer - Configure VTP and DTP 252.1.4.5 Lab - Configure Extended VLANs, VTP and DTP2.2Troubleshoot Multi-VLAN Issues26262.2.1 Inter-VLAN configuration issues 262.2.1.1 Deleting VLANs 262.2.1.2 Switch Port Issues 262.2.1.3 Verify Switch Configuration 272.2.1.4 Interface Issues 272.2.1.5 Verify Routing Configuration 282.2.2 IP Addressing Issues 282.2.2.1 Errors with IP Addresses and Subnet Masks 282.2.2.2 Verifying IP Address and Subnet Mask Configuration Issues2.2.2.3 Activity - Identify the Troubleshooting Command for anInter-VLAN Routing Issue 292.2.2.4 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Routing 292.2.2.5 Lab - Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Routing 302.2.3 VTP and DTP Issues 302.2.3.1 Troubleshoot VTP Issues 302.2.3.2 Troubleshoot DTP Issues 312.2.3.3 Packet Tracer - Troubleshoot VTP and DTP Issues2.3Layer 3 Switching31312.3.1 Layer 3 Switching Operation and Configuration2.3.1.1 Introduction to Layer 3 Switching 3100 Course Booklet FM.indd vi293109/05/17 9:11 AM

vii2.3.1.2 Inter-VLAN Routing with Switch Virtual Interfaces 322.3.1.3 Inter-VLAN Routing with Switch Virtual Interfaces (Cont.)2.3.1.4 Inter-VLAN Routing with Routed Ports 332.3.1.5 Packet Tracer - Configure Layer 3 Switching andInter-VLAN routing 342.3.2 Troubleshoot Layer 3 Switching 342.3.2.1 Layer 3 Switch Configuration Issues 342.3.2.2 Example: Troubleshooting Layer 3 Switching 342.3.2.3 Activity - Troubleshoot Layer 3 Switching Issues 352.4Summary2.4.1.13235Conclusion 35Chapter 2 Quiz 37Chapter 2 Exam 37Your Chapter Notes 37Chapter 3STP3.039LAN Redundancy393.0.1 Introduction 393.0.1.2 Class Activity - Stormy Traffic3.1Spanning Tree Concepts39403.1.1 Purpose of Spanning Tree 403.1.1.1 Redundancy at OSI Layers 1 and 2 403.1.1.2 Issues with Layer 1 Redundancy: MAC Database Instability 413.1.1.3 Issues with Layer 1 Redundancy: Broadcast Storms 423.1.1.4 Issues with Layer 1 Redundancy: Duplicate Unicast Frames 423.1.1.5 Packet Tracer - Examining a Redundant Design 433.1.2 STP Operation 433.1.2.1 Spanning Tree Algorithm: Introduction 433.1.2.2 Spanning Tree Algorithm: Port Roles 453.1.2.3 Spanning Tree Algorithm: Root Bridge 463.1.2.4 Spanning Tree Algorithm: Root Path Cost 463.1.2.5 Port Role Decisions for RSTP 473.1.2.6 Designated and Alternate Ports 483.1.2.7 802.1D BPDU Frame Format 493.1.2.8 802.1D BPDU Propagation and Process 493.1.2.9 Extended System ID 503.1.2.10 Activity - Identify 802.1D Port Rules 523.1.2.11 Video Demonstration - Observing Spanning Tree ProtocolOperation 523.1.2.12 Lab - Building a Switched Network with Redundant Links 523.2Varieties of Spanning Tree Protocols523.2.1 Overview 523.2.1.1 Types of Spanning Tree Protocols 523.2.1.2 Characteristics of the Spanning Tree Protocols 533.2.1.3 Activity - Identify Types of Spanning Tree Protocols543.2.2 PVST 543.2.2.1 Overview of PVST 543.2.2.2 Port States and PVST Operation 553.2.2.3 Extended System ID and PVST Operation 563.2.2.4 Activity - Identifying PVST Operation 5600 Course Booklet FM.indd vii09/05/17 9:11 AM

viiiScaling Networks v6 Course Booklet3.2.3 Rapid PVST 563.2.3.1 Overview of Rapid PVST 563.2.3.2 RSTP BPDUs 573.2.3.3 Edge Ports 583.2.3.4 Link Types 583.2.3.5 Activity - Identify Port Roles in Rapid PVST 593.2.3.6 Activity - Compare PVST and Rapid PVST 593.3Spanning Tree Configuration593.3.1 PVST Configuration 593.3.1.1 Catalyst 2960 Default Configuration 593.3.1.2 Configuring and Verifying the Bridge ID 593.3.1.3 PortFast and BPDU Guard 603.3.1.4 PVST Load Balancing 603.3.1.5 Packet Tracer - Configuring PVST 613.3.2 Rapid PVST Configuration 623.3.2.1 Spanning Tree Mode 623.3.2.2 Packet Tracer - Configuring Rapid PVST 623.3.2.3 Lab - Configuring Rapid PVST , PortFast and BPDU Guard3.3.3 STP Configuration Issues 633.3.3.1 Analyzing the STP Topology 633.3.3.2 Expected Topology versus Actual Topology 633.3.3.3 Overview of Spanning Tree Status 633.3.3.4 Spanning Tree Failure Consequences 643.3.3.5 Repairing a Spanning Tree Problem 643.3.3.6 Activity - Troubleshoot STP Configuration Issues3.3.4 Switch Stacking and Chassis Aggregation 653.3.4.1 Switch Stacking Concepts 653.3.4.2 Spanning Tree and Switch Stacks 653.3.4.3 Activity - Identify Switch Stacking Concepts3.4Summary636566663.4.1.1 Class Activity - Documentation Tree3.4.1.2 Summary 6666Chapter 3 Quiz 68Chapter 3 Exam 68Your Chapter Notes 68Chapter 4 EtherChannel and HSRP 694.0Introduction694.0.1.2 Class Activity - Imagine This4.169Link Aggregation Concepts 704.1.1 Link Aggregation 704.1.1.1 Introduction to Link Aggregation 704.1.1.2 Advantages of EtherChannel 704.1.2 EtherChannel Operation 714.1.2.1 Implementation Restrictions 714.1.2.2 Port Aggregation Protocol 714.1.2.3 Link Aggregation Control Protocol 734.1.2.4 Activity - Identify the PAgP and LACP Modes00 Course Booklet FM.indd viii7309/05/17 9:11 AM

ix4.2Link Aggregation Configuration 734.2.1 Configuring EtherChannel 734.2.1.1 Configuration Guidelines 734.2.1.2 Configuring Interfaces 744.2.1.3 Packet Tracer - Configuring EtherChannel4.2.1.4 Lab - Configuring EtherChannel 75754.2.2 Verifying and Troubleshooting EtherChannel 754.2.2.1 Verifying EtherChannel 754.2.2.2 Troubleshooting EtherChannel 764.2.2.3 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting EtherChannel4.2.2.4 Lab - Troubleshooting EtherChannel 774.3First Hop Redundancy Protocols76774.3.1 Concept of First Hop Redundancy Protocols 774.3.1.1 Default Gateway Limitations 774.3.1.2 Router Redundancy 774.3.1.3 Steps for Router Failover 784.3.1.4 Activity - Identify FHRP Terminology 784.3.1.5 First Hop Redundancy Protocols 784.3.1.6 Activity - Identify the Type of FHRP 794.3.2 HSRP Operations 794.3.2.1 HSRP Overview 794.3.2.2 HSRP Versions 804.3.2.3 HSRP Priority and Preemption 804.3.2.4 HSRP States and Timers 814.3.2.5 Activity - Identify HSRP Terminology and States814.3.3 HSRP Configuration 814.3.3.1 HSRP Configuration Commands 814.3.3.2 HSRP Sample Configuration 814.3.3.3 HSRP Verification 824.3.3.4 Lab - Configure HSRP 824.3.4 HSRP Troubleshooting 824.3.4.1 HSRP Failure 824.3.4.2 HSRP Debug Commands 824.3.4.3 Common HSRP Configuration Issues 834.3.4.4 Packet Tracer - Troubleshoot HSRP 834.4Summary844.4.1.1 Class Activity - Linking Up 844.4.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge4.4.1.3 Summary 8484Chapter 4 Quiz 86Chapter 4 Exam 86Your Chapter Notes 86Chapter 5 Dynamic Routing 875.0Introduction875.0.1.1 Dynamic Routing 875.0.1.2 How Much Does This Cost5.1Dynamic Routing Protocols87885.1.1 Types of Routing Protocols 885.1.1.1 Classifying Routing Protocols00 Course Booklet FM.indd ix8809/05/17 9:11 AM

xScaling Networks v6 Course .1.1.85.1.1.95.1.1.105.1.1.115.2IGP and EGP Routing Protocols 89Distance Vector Routing Protocols 90Link-State Routing Protocols 90Classful Routing Protocols 91Classless Routing Protocols 92Routing Protocol Characteristics 92Routing Protocol Metrics 93Activity - Classify Dynamic