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HIGHWAY CAPACITY MANUAL6 T H E D IT ION A G U I D E F O R M U LT IM O D A L M OBIL I T Y A N A LYS I SVO L U M E 4 : A P P L I C AT IO N S G U ID ET R A N SP ORTAT IO N R E S E A R C H B OA RDWA S H I N G T ON , D .C . W W W.T RB.O RG

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD2016 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE*Chair: James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations,Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport, TexasVice Chair: Paul Trombino III, Director, Iowa Department ofTransportation, AmesExecutive Director: Neil J. Pedersen, Transportation Research BoardVictoria A. Arroyo, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center;Assistant Dean, Centers and Institutes; and Professor and Director,Environmental Law Program, Georgetown University Law Center,Washington, D.C.Scott E. Bennett, Director, Arkansas State Highway and TransportationDepartment, Little RockJennifer Cohan, Secretary, Delaware Department of Transportation, DoverMalcolm Dougherty, Director, California Department ofTransportation, SacramentoA. Stewart Fotheringham, Professor, School of Geographical Sciencesand Urban Planning, Arizona State University, TempeJohn S. Halikowski, Director, Arizona Department of Transportation,PhoenixSusan Hanson, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, GraduateSchool of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MassachusettsSteve Heminger, Executive Director, Metropolitan TransportationCommission, Oakland, CaliforniaChris T. Hendrickson, Hamerschlag Professor of Engineering, CarnegieMellon University, Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaJeffrey D. Holt, Managing Director, Power, Energy, and InfrastructureGroup, BMO Capital Markets Corporation, New YorkS. Jack Hu, Vice President for Research and J. Reid and Polly AndersonProfessor of Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann ArborRoger B. Huff, President, HGLC, LLC, Farmington Hills, MichiganGeraldine Knatz, Professor, Sol Price School of Public Policy, ViterbiSchool of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los AngelesYsela Llort, Consultant, Miami, FloridaMelinda McGrath, Executive Director, Mississippi Department ofTransportation, JacksonJames P. Redeker, Commissioner, Connecticut Department ofTransportation, NewingtonMark L. Rosenberg, Executive Director, The Task Force for GlobalHealth, Inc., Decatur, GeorgiaKumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering,Purdue University, West Lafayette, IndianaDaniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and EnvironmentalScience and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies,University of California, DavisKirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation,Lansing (Past Chair, 2014)Gary C. Thomas, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area RapidTransit, Dallas, TexasPat Thomas, Senior Vice President of State Government Affairs, UnitedParcel Service, Washington, D.C.Katherine F. Turnbull, Executive Associate Director and ResearchScientist, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College StationDean Wise, Vice President of Network Strategy, Burlington NorthernSanta Fe Railway, Fort Worth, TexasThomas P. Bostick (Lieutenant General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineersand Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington,D.C. (ex officio)James C. Card (Vice Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard, retired), MaritimeConsultant, The Woodlands, Texas, and Chair, TRB Marine Board(ex officio)T. F. Scott Darling III, Acting Administrator and Chief Counsel, FederalMotor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation(ex officio)* Membership as of June 2016.Marie Therese Dominguez, Administrator, Pipeline and HazardousMaterials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation(ex officio)Sarah Feinberg, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration,U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)Carolyn Flowers, Acting Administrator, Federal Transit Administration,U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of IndianAffairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics,Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)Michael P. Huerta, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration,U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)Paul N. Jaenichen, Sr., Administrator, Maritime Administration,U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)Bevan B. Kirley, Research Associate, University of North CarolinaHighway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, and Chair, TRB YoungMembers Council (ex officio)Gregory G. Nadeau, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration,U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)Wayne Nastri, Acting Executive Officer, South Coast Air QualityManagement District, Diamond Bar, California (ex officio)Mark R. Rosekind, Administrator, National Highway Traffic SafetyAdministration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)Craig A. Rutland, U.S. Air Force Pavement Engineer, U.S. Air ForceCivil Engineer Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida (ex officio)Reuben Sarkar, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation,U.S. Department of Energy (ex officio)Richard A. White, Acting President and CEO, American PublicTransportation Association, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)Gregory D. Winfree, Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology,Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)Frederick G. (Bud) Wright, Executive Director, American Associationof State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C.(ex officio)Paul F. Zukunft (Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. CoastGuard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security (ex officio)Transportation Research Board publications are available by orderingindividual publications directly from the TRB Business Office, throughthe Internet at www.TRB.org, or by annual subscription throughorganizational or individual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and librarysubscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information,contact the Transportation Research Board Business Office, 500 FifthStreet, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 202-334-3213;fax 202-334-2519; or e-mail [email protected]).Copyright 2016 by the National Academy of Sciences.All rights reserved.Printed in the United States of America.ISBN 978-0-309-36997-8 [Slipcased set of three volumes]ISBN 978-0-309-36998-5 [Volume 1]ISBN 978-0-309-36999-2 [Volume 2]ISBN 978-0-309-37000-4 [Volume 3]ISBN 978-0-309-37001-1 [Volume 4, online only]

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress,signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise thenation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peersfor outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president.The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter ofthe National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advisingthe nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions toengineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) wasestablished in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advisethe nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers fordistinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering,and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation andconduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions.The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstandingcontributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science,engineering, and medicine.Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine atwww.national-academies.org.The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the NationalAcademies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the TransportationResearch Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society byproviding leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research andinformation exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, andmultimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from thepublic and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the publicinterest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agenciesincluding the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, andother organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation.Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

Highway Capacity Manual: A Guide for Multimodal Mobility AnalysisCHAPTER 31SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS: SUPPLEMENTALCONTENTS1. INTRODUCTION . 31-12. CAPACITY AND PHASE DURATION . 31-2Actuated Phase Duration . 31-2Lane Group Flow Rate on Multiple-Lane Approaches . 31-22Pretimed Phase Duration . 31-30Pedestrian and Bicycle Adjustment Factors . 31-34Work Zone Presence Adjustment Factor . 31-403. QUEUE ACCUMULATION POLYGON . 31-42Concepts . 31-42General QAP Construction Procedure . 31-43QAP Construction Procedure for Selected Lane Groups . 31-454. QUEUE STORAGE RATIO . 31-63Concepts . 31-63Procedure for Estimating Back of Queue for Selected Lane Groups . 31-705. PLANNING-LEVEL ANALYSIS APPLICATION . 31-78Overview of the Application . 31-78Required Data and Sources . 31-80Methodology . 31-80Worksheets . 31-946. FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES . 31-99Field Measurement of Intersection Control Delay . 31-99Field Measurement of Saturation Flow Rate. 31-1057. COMPUTATIONAL ENGINE DOCUMENTATION. 31-111Flowcharts . 31-111Linkage Lists . 31-1138. USE OF ALTERNATIVE TOOLS . 31-119Effect of Storage Bay Overflow . 31-119Effect of Right-Turn-on-Red Operation . 31-121Chapter 31/Signalized Intersections: SupplementalVersion 6.0ContentsPage 31-i

Highway Capacity Manual: A Guide for Multimodal Mobility AnalysisEffect of Short Through Lanes . 31-124Effect of Closely Spaced Intersections . 31-1259. EXAMPLE PROBLEMS . 31-127Example Problem 1: Motorized Vehicle LOS . 31-127Example Problem 2: Pedestrian LOS . 31-135Example Problem 3: Bicycle LOS . 31-14110. REFERENCES . 31-144ContentsPage 31-iiChapter 31/Signalized Intersections: SupplementalVersion 6.0

Highway Capacity Manual: A Guide for Multimodal Mobility AnalysisLIST OF EXHIBITSExhibit 31-1 Time Elements Influencing Actuated Phase Duration . 31-3Exhibit 31-2 Detection Design and Maximum Allowable Headway . 31-8Exhibit 31-3 Force-Off Points, Yield Point, and Phase Splits . 31-14Exhibit 31-4 Example Equivalent Maximum Green for Fixed Force Mode . 31-16Exhibit 31-5 Probability of a Lane Change . 31-24Exhibit 31-6 Input Variables for Lane Group Flow Rate Procedure . 31-25Exhibit 31-7 Example Intersection . 31-32Exhibit 31-8 Conflict Zone Locations . 31-35Exhibit 31-9 Work Zone on an Intersection Approach . 31-40Exhibit 31-10 Geometric Design Input Data Require