Simon andGarfunkelRhea ChristensonTianyu HuKatharine Anton

We choose the duo of Simon & Garfunkel,made up of Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel,because of their raw sound, harmonizingvocals, and creative lyrics.

Paul Simon Born October 13, 1941 in New JerseyMother: Belle, English teacherFather: Louis, teacher & bandleaderJewish-AmericanGrew up in Queens, NY1972 released first solo album, selftitled1985 recorded Graceland in SouthAfrica, beginning his experimentingwith international music.Simon had commercial and criticalsuccess as a solo artist12 Grammy awardsLifetime Achievement awardSimon was inducted into the Rockand Roll Hall of Fame in 2001

Art Garfunkel Born November 15, 1941 inForest HIlls, NYMother: RoseFather: Jack, travelingsalesmanBegan playing a wire recorderat age 4 for hours at a timeAppeared in the filmsCatch-22 (1969) & CarnalKnowledge (1971), continuedacting with critical acclaim1973 released first solo albumtitled Angel ClareAlso in the 1970s, sangbackground and duet vocalswith J.D. Souther & JamesTaylor6 Grammy awards

Tom & Jerry Paul & Art met at Forest HillsElementary School, formed aduo called "Tom & Jerry"The Everly Brother's were theirrole models1957 pooled together 7 torecord "Hey Schoolgirl", becamea minor successLanded them a spot onAmerican Bandstand followingJerry Lee LewisPaul & Art went their separateways for college after they failedto produce a follow-up hit

Simon & Garfunkel Paul & Art reunited and in 1964released the album WednesdayMorning 3AM to little success; set thetone for their style1966 released Sounds of Silence,including a re-edited version of thetitle track which became an instant hit1967 collaborated to make thesoundtrack to The Graduate1969 released Bridge Over TroubledWater, title song became a culturalanthemOther projects include: Parsley, Sage,Rosemary, & Thyme. & Bookends1970 went their separate ways1981 performed free concert in CentralPark, they continue to reunite forperformances most recently in 2009

Music Style: Themes and Lyrics"Paul Simon (right picture) wasthe Greenwich Movement poetwho better than any othercaptured the psyche of hisgeneration.""While Bob Dylan(left picture) was thespokesman of the peace marches and thecampus sit-ins, Simon represented theaverage, shy, introverted kid, lonely inhis bedroom, distressed by post-puberalsensitivity."

Music Style: Themes and Lyrics Paul Simon (songwriter)used music to express thesensibility of those whowere more emotionaland introverted.His songs are tenderresponses and seemfragile compared to thesongs of protest. Theautumnal tone of Simon &Garfunkel was the opposite ofDylan's angry and prophetictone.

Music Style - Folk MusicBy the early '60s, both Simonand Garfunkel were comingunder the influence of folkmusic. Signing to Columbia,they recorded an initiallyunsuccessful acoustic debut in1964, Wednesday Morning 3AM, a compilation of coversand originals performed onlywith an acoustic guitar;unfortunately, they wereconsidered two more imitatorsof Dylan. It includes theoriginal track of The Sounds ofSilence.

Music Style - Folk Rock MusicThanks to their producer, Tom Wilson(Below), one of the few AfroAmerican producers, the same manwho had "electrified" Dylan, one oftheir songs bounced to the top of thecharts.Wilson had complemented the originalacoustic sound with an arrangement ofelectric guitars, bass and drums: thusregenerated, The Sound Of Silence, a folkrock version, became the most movingsingle of 1965.

Influenced Music StyleMusically Simon & Garfunkeljoined the two white traditionsthat endured after the war: thatof folk singers and that ofvocal harmonies.With respect to the folktradition, Simon & Garfunkelwere sweeter and moremelodic, closer to the Englishand Scottish masters.

Influenced Music StyleWith respect to the vocalharmonies, the duo displayeda clearer and more austerestyle, almost neoclassical,influenced by renaissancemusic and medieval motets.Their most immediate influencewas the Everly Brothers, butSimon's whispering, almost infalsetto and Art Garfunkel'sseraphim harmonizing producedsomething much more ethereal,even spiritual.

Contributions to Music Folk and folk-rock's most successful duoEstablished Paul Simon as one of the pre-eminentsongwriters of his generationCreated the most seamless duo harmonies since theEverly BrothersBrought folk-rock into the modern age with epic poeticstances and innovative productionCreated a healing anthem for a turbulent era with the1970 single "Bridge Over Troubled Water"Began Simon's influential incorporation of world musicinto Western pop

Influences on Simon & GarfunkelBob DylanThe Everly BrotherThe ByrdsThe Beatles

Music InfluencesInfluences on Simon and GarfunkelWith careers lasting more than a half-century, Simon and Garfunkel’sinfluences have evolved over time. They have identified the Everly Brothers,Bob Dylan, the Hilltoppers, the Four Aces, the Crewcuts, Little Richard, andFats Domino as among their earliest influences.Influenced by Simon and GarfunkelSimon and Garfunkel have had an enormous influence on popular and folkmusic. One measure lies in the range of artists that have performed orrecorded covers of one song alone, “Bridge over Troubled Water.” The listincludes Elvis Presley, Aretha Franklin, Willie Nelson, The Jackson Five,The Supremes, Andrea Bocelli and Mary Blige, Perry Como, Roy Orbison,Buck Owens, Shirley Bassey, Roberta Flack, Johnny Cash, and StevieWonder.

Other Music of the PeriodThe Beatles Emerged in the early1960'sInfluenced Simon andGarfunkel throughtheir experimentalalbum "Sgt. Pepper'sLonely Hearts ClubBand

Other Music of the PeriodThe Mama's and The Papa's Active from 1965-1968Influenced Simon andGarfunkel through theirfolk musicBoth had similar soundand form

Other Music of the PeriodBob Dylan Started in 1961Wrote powerful protestsongs that influencedSimon and GarfunkelWas a folk singer

Other Music of the PeriodPeter, Paul and Mary Started singing in1962Folk singers thatinfluenced Simon andGarfunkel to start infolk music

Political Events of the 1960'sThe Vietnam WarThe Cold WarJohn F. KennedyPresidencyCivil Rights Act of 1964

Political Events of the 1960's National Voting Rights Act Social Revolution Swinging Sixties All these events influenced Simon andGarfunkel to write "Protest Songs",something that they were known for.

Musical Analysis: I am Rock Genre: Folk MusicInstrumentation: drums, acoustic guitar,electric guitar, bass, high timbre of thekeyboard (sounds an octave above).Meter: quadruple meter, a subtle backbeatcan be heard in the drums

Musical Analysis: I am Rock Beat subdivision: duple, heard in the hihat, backbeatTexture: Homophonic melody andaccompaniment, some chordal homophonyin the chorusForm: Strophic

Musical Analysis: I am RockOverall: Similar to "The Sounds of Silence", itstarts with triplet acoustic guitar lick, andthen soft whispered voice flows into themelody. After the first phrase, the percussionand electric guitar emerges into the mainaccompaniment. In the end, the acousticguitar reprises and plays the finished riff.

Musical Analysis: I am RockMeaning of Lyrics: "I've built walls/Afortress deep and mighty/That none maypenetrate/I have no need of friendship/Friendship causes pain." It should be noticedfrom the above phrases that they gave thevoice a character, who is self-conscious anddistrustful.

Musical Analysis: I am RockMeaning of Lyrics: The narrator viewshimself as "a rock" and "a island". Ironically,the last phrase,"And a rock feels no pain/Andan island never cries", displays the lamentand loneliness of narrator, which is thecentral concern in Simon & Garfunkel'smusic.

ReferencesArt Garfunkel. (2013). The Biography Channel website. Retrieved 08:42, Jun 11, 2013, 17191580.Kingston, V. (1998). Simon and garfunkel: he biography. New York, NY: Fromm International.Paul Frederic Simon. (2013). The Biography Channel website. Retrieved Jun 11, 2013, 4431.Slides 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12Piero Scaruffi. (1999). Paul Simon. Retrieved June 11, 2013, from 9Richie Unterberger. (2013). All Music website. Biography. Retrieved June 11, 2013, -mn0000038936

ReferencesSlide 13Robert Fontenot. (2013). Oldies Music website. Profile: Simon and Garfunkel. Retrieved June 11,2013, arfunkel.htmSlide 15Shmoop Editorial Team. (November 11, 2008).Simon and Garfunkel Influences. Retrieved June 12,2013, from BeatleBay (2012). The Beatles. Retreived Beatles.htmRock and Roll Hall of Fame (2013). The Mamas and The Papas Biography. Retreived pas/bio/David Gates (1997). Dylan Revisited. Retreived ylan-revisited.htmlRobert Corwin (2013). Peter, Paul and Mary. Retreived