TABLE OF CONTENTSIntroduction & History of the Toyota Production System . 3Goals of the Toyota Production System. . 4TPS Model Overview.5-6Respect for People . 7Focus Areas of TPS . 8Eliminating Waste.9-10Quality .11-12Cost. . 13Productivity. 14Safety & Morale . 15Jidoka . .16-18Standardization .19Just in Time . 20Pull Production .21Kanban .22-23Level Production. 24Takt Time. . 25Flow Production.26-28Equipment Reliability . 29Summary . 30Definition of Terms. .31-322TPS HandbookArt of Lean,

INTRODUCTIONThis handbook is intended to function as a simple guide that introduces key concepts related tothe Toyota Production System. It is not intended as a complete reference manual or animplementation guide. The contents described within are merely provided to summarize themore familiar elements of the system in a concise manner.If you are looking for a more complete summary of the system then there are several publishedworks that attempt to go into greater detail. Examples of summary works include “ToyotaProduction System” by Yasuhiro Monden, “A Study of the Toyota Production System from anIndustrial Engineering Viewpoint” by Shigeo Shingo, “Toyota Production System: BeyondLarge Scale Production” by Taiichi Ohno, and more recently, “The Toyota Way” and theaccompanying field book by Jeff Liker.BRIEF HISTORY OF THE TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEMThe Toyota Production System (TPS) arose out of necessity in response to the circumstancessurrounding the company. Many of the foundational concepts are old and unique to Toyotawhile others have their roots in more traditional sources.The oldest part of the production system is the concept of Jidoka which was created in 1902 byToyoda founder Sakichi Toyoda. This concept pertains to notion of building in quality at theproduction process as well as enabling separation of man and machine for multi-processhandling. The origins of this notion began in the Toyoda Spinning and Weaving company whichwas started by Sakichi Toyoda. Sakichi invented a loom that automatically stopped whenever itdetected that a thread was broken. This stopped the process from created defective material.Later on in 1924 he created an automatic loom that allowed one person to operate multiplemachines. The rights to manufacture the loom outside of Japan for were eventually sold to thePlatt Brothers Ltd. in England. This money was then partially used to start an automotivedivision that was later spun off in 1937 as a separate business and company under KiichiroToyoda the son of Sakichi.The most famous element of the TPS is no doubt the Just-in-Time pillar of the productionsystem. The phrase Just-in-Time was coined by Kiichiro Toyota in 1937 after the start of ToyotaMotor Corporation. The company was quite poor and could not afford to waste money on excessequipment or materials in production. Everything was expected to be procured just in time andnot too early or too late. Later elements developed in the 1950’s including takt time,standardized work, kanban, and supermarkets added to the basis for JIT.After World War II Taiichi Ohno a promising engineer in the Toyoda Spinning and WeavingCorporation was brought over to the automotive side of the business. He was given the task ofimproving operational productivity and driving in the concepts of Just-In-Time and Jidoka. Hewas eventually appointed machine shop manager of an engine plant and experimented with manyconcepts in production between the years of 1945-1955. His work and effort is largely whatTPS Handbook3Art of Lean,

resulted in the formulation of what is now acknowledged as the Toyota Production System.There are numerous other people inside the company that contributed to the overall developmentof the company and the production system.There are also many other tools and techniques that were developed in Toyota such as 7 Wastes,Standardized Work, 5S, SMED, Visual Control, Error Proofing, as well as many others. Theconcepts will be explained in the latter sections of this handbook. Other influences such asHenry Ford, Fredrick Taylor, and Dr. W. Edwards Demming are outside the scope of this shortdocument.4TPS HandbookArt of Lean,

GOALS OF TPSThe goal of the Toyota Production System is to provide products at world class quality levels tomeet the expectations of customers, and to be a model of corporate responsibility within industryand the surrounding community.The Toyota Production System historically has had four basic aims that are consistent with thesevalues and objectives: The four goals are as follows:1.Provide world class quality and service to the customer.2.Develop each employee’s potential, based on mutual respect, trust andcooperation.3.Reduce cost through the elimination of waste and maximize profit4.Develop flexible production standards based on market demand.The graphic presented below models the Toyota Production System. The purpose of thisdocument is to describe the major sub-systems that comprise TPS, as well as explain the keyconcepts and tools associated with the system.5TPS HandbookArt of Lean,

THE TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELThe production system philosophy of Toyota embodies a manufacturing culture of continuousimprovement based on setting standards aimed at eliminating waste through participation of allemployees. The goal of the system is to reduce the timeline from the time an order is receiveduntil the time it is delivered to the actual customer. Ideally the system strives to produce thehighest possible quality, at the lowest possible cost, with the shortest lead-time possible.There are two primary pillars of the system. The first and most famous pillar of the system isJust In Time (JIT). The JIT concepts aims to produce and deliver the right parts, in the rightamount, at the right time using the minimum necessary resources. This system reducesinventory, and strives to prevents both early and over production. Producing in a JIT fashionexposes problems quickly. With less inventory in a system the “rocks” are quickly exposed inproduction that are disrupting flow. Most companies shy away problems and use inventory tohide these problem and avoid potential disruptions. In Toyota however the opposite logic isapplied. By reducing inventory you expose the real problems in a production process quicklyand focus need for improvement. This notion of surfacing problems and abnormalities is acritical concept in TPS. Of course unless you can solve the problem that you expose there is adanger to this approach.There are several important components to TPS: takt time, flow production, pull via kanban, andleveling (heijunka). These items will be describe in more detail later in this handbook.Jidoka (Build in quality) is the second pillar of the system. There are two parts to Jidoka –1) Building in quality at the process and 2) Enabling separation of man from machine in workenvironments. Jidoka is a Japanese work that ordinarily mean automatic or automation.However Toyota puts a specific twist on this word by adding a what is known as a “radical” indepicting kanji characters. The radical added to the left of one of the kanji characters in Jidokameans “human”. In other words TPS aspires for processes that are capable of making intelligentdecisions and shutting down automatically at the first sign of an abnormal condition such as adefect, or other problem. The goal is not to run continuously but in other words to stop runningautomatically when trouble arises. This automatic stop function helps stop defects fromescaping downstream, prevents injury, limits machine damage, and enables a better look at thecurrent condition when ever there is a problem.Much like the logic of JIT this concept of Jidoka is counterintuitive. In other words it is better tostop a machine at the first sign of trouble than to keep on producing the problem which onlygenerates more waste.The second component of Jidoka is separation of man from machine. When machines possessthe ability to stop in the event of a problem then there is no need for humans to stand and watcha machines. Jidoka frees people being tied to machines and monitoring them and puts people touse in a more value added fashion. This ability to separate man from machine reflects Toyota’srespect for the employee and is an important enabler for Standardized Work to flourish.6TPS HandbookArt of Lean,

The foundation of TPS is Level Production. By smoothing or leveling customer requirementsover time, we can better utilize our resources and ensure continuous production. Averagingvolumes and model mix requires smaller lots and in the best cases “batch of one” capability fromraw materials to finished goods.The bedrock of this system is Equipment Reliability. Without reliable equipment, we mustbuild inventories (just in case), or invest in more equipment (due to unexpected downtime).Proper maintenance of equipment will ensure that it is available when we need it.In contrast to the conventional production system, in which systematic batch production withlarge lots is believed to have a maximum effect on cost reduction, the Toyota manufacturingphilosophy is to make the smallest lot possible, and do so by setting up dies and machines in theshortest time possible.7TPS HandbookArt of Lean,

RESPECT FOR PEOPLE C R I T I C A LC O N C E P T At Toyota, the heart of the system is the employees as individuals and as members of their workteams. Toyota is convinced that the company goals can be reached in the best way throughparticipation of all employees. A major part of the production system is the underlying conceptof respect for all employee.Participation can be exercised primarily in areas where the employee or the work team hassufficient knowledge, or in other words, is competent. That is why we find the word“competence” in the frame around the work team. Competence of individuals or work teams canbe increased by learning, e.g., by learning how to apply relevant TPS tools.Finally the Toyota Production System identifies the four main areas where the production teammembers can participate in achieving company goals: setting and maintaining work standards (standards) solving daily performance problems (problem solving) participating in the continuous improvement process (improvement) organizing teamwork efficiently (teamwork)8TPS HandbookArt of Lean,

FOCUS AREAS OF TPSThe driving force of the Toyota Production system is the elimination ofwaste aimed at ever improving quality, cost, productivity, safety andmorale. The result is greater satisfaction for our major constituents: ourcustomers, our employees and our investors.In promoting the Toyota Production System and the concept of continuous improvement, it isnecessary to properly understand the meaning of “complete elimination of waste.” Wasteencompasses all factors that do not add value to the product or service, whether in parts, labor orproduction process. Continuous improvement efforts are not limited to the production floor. AllToyota employees and teams search for ways to continuously improve their product, process orservice.The best methods today will someday be outmoded. Although our philosophy will remainconstant, our methods will be continuously improved. C R I T I C A LC O N C E P T Eliminating WasteIt requires constant effort at cost reduction to maintain continuous profits in manufacturing. Theprime way to reduce costs is to produce, in a timely fashion, only those products which havebeen sold and to eliminate all waste in manufacturing them. There are various ways to analyzeand implement cost reduction, from the start of designing all the way through to manufacturingand sales. One of the goals of the Toyota Production System, however, is to locate waste andeliminate it. It is possible to uncover a very large amount of waste by observing team members,equipment, materials and organization in the actual production line. In every case, waste neverimproves value; it only increases cost.Continuous improvement focuses on the elimination of seven major types of waste.1. CORRECTION/SCRAP2. OVER-PRODUCTION3. WAITING4. CONVEYANCE5. PROCESSING6. INVENTORY7. MOTION9TPS HandbookArt of Lean,

1. Correction / ScrapThe waste of correction is a result of poor internal quality. Producing defective products orprod