Chemistry guideFirst assessment 2016

Chemistry guideFirst assessment 2016

Diploma ProgrammeChemistry guidePublished February 2014Published on behalf of the International Baccalaureate Organization, a not-for-profiteducational foundation of 15 Route des Morillons, 1218 Le Grand-Saconnex, Geneva,Switzerland by theInternational Baccalaureate Organization (UK) LtdPeterson House, Malthouse Avenue, Cardiff GateCardiff, Wales CF23 8GLUnited KingdomWebsite: International Baccalaureate Organization 2014The International Baccalaureate Organization (known as the IB) offers four high-qualityand challenging educational programmes for a worldwide community of schools, aimingto create a better, more peaceful world. This publication is one of a range of materialsproduced to support these programmes.The IB may use a variety of sources in its work and checks information to verify accuracyand authenticity, particularly when using community-based knowledge sources such asWikipedia. The IB respects the principles of intellectual property and makes strenuousefforts to identify and obtain permission before publication from rights holders of allcopyright material used. The IB is grateful for permissions received for material usedin this publication and will be pleased to correct any errors or omissions at the earliestopportunity.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior written permissionof the IB, or as expressly permitted by law or by the IB’s own rules and policy. See merchandise and publications can be purchased through the IB store at General ordering queries should be directed to the Sales andMarketing Department in Cardiff.Email: [email protected] Baccalaureate, Baccalauréat International and Bachillerato Internacionalare registered trademarks of the International Baccalaureate Organization.4070

IB mission statementThe International Baccalaureate aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people whohelp to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect.To this end the organization works with schools, governments and international organizations to developchallenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment.These programmes encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelonglearners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right. International Baccalaureate Organization 2014

ContentsIntroduction1Purpose of this document1The Diploma Programme2Nature of science6Nature of chemistry13Aims18Assessment objectives19Syllabus20Syllabus outline20Approaches to the teaching of chemistry22Syllabus content27Assessment167Assessment in the Diploma Programme167Assessment outline—SL169Assessment outline—HL170External assessment171Internal assessment173The group 4 project185Appendices190Glossary of command terms190Bibliography193viiiChemistry guide

IntroductionPurpose of this documentThis publication is intended to guide the planning, teaching and assessment of the subject in schools.Subject teachers are the primary audience, although it is expected that teachers will use the guide to informstudents and parents about the subject.This guide can be found on the subject page of the online curriculum centre (OCC) at, apassword-protected IB website designed to support IB teachers. It can also be purchased from the IB storeat resourcesAdditional publications such as teacher support materials, subject reports, internal assessment guidanceand grade descriptors can also be found on the OCC. Past examination papers as well as markschemes canbe purchased from the IB store.Teachers are encouraged to check the OCC for additional resources created or used by other teachers.Teachers can provide details of useful resources, for example: websites, books, videos, journals or teachingideas.AcknowledgmentThe IB wishes to thank the educators and associated schools for generously contributing time and resourcesto the production of this guide.First assessment 2016Chemistry guide1

IntroductionThe Diploma ProgrammeThe Diploma Programme is a rigorous pre-university course of study designed for students in the 16 to 19age range. It is a broad-based two-year course that aims to encourage students to be knowledgeable andinquiring, but also caring and compassionate. There is a strong emphasis on encouraging students todevelop intercultural understanding, open-mindedness, and the attitudes necessary for them to respectand evaluate a range of points of view.The Diploma Programme modelThe course is presented as six academic areas enclosing a central core (see figure 1). It encourages theconcurrent study of a broad range of academic areas. Students study two modern languages (or a modernlanguage and a classical language), a humanities or social science subject, a science, mathematics andone of the creative arts. It is this comprehensive range of subjects that makes the Diploma Programme ademanding course of study designed to prepare students effectively for university entrance. In each of theacademic areas students have flexibility in making their choices, which means they can choose subjects thatparticularly interest them and that they may wish to study further at university.Figure 1Diploma Programme model2Chemistry guide

The Diploma ProgrammeChoosing the right combinationStudents are required to choose one subject from each of the six academic areas, although they can, insteadof an arts subject, choose two subjects from another area. Normally, three subjects (and not more thanfour) are taken at higher level (HL), and the others are taken at standard level (SL). The IB recommends 240teaching hours for HL subjects and 150 hours for SL. Subjects at HL are studied in greater depth and breadththan at SL.At both levels, many skills are developed, especially those of critical thinking and analysis. At the end ofthe course, students’ abilities are measured by means of external assessment. Many subjects contain someelement of coursework assessed by teachers.The core of the Diploma Programme modelAll Diploma Programme students participate in the three course elements that make up the core of themodel. Theory of knowledge (TOK) is a course that is fundamentally about critical thinking and inquiry intothe process of knowing rather than about learning a specific body of knowledge. The TOK course examinesthe nature of knowledge and how we know what we claim to know. It does this by encouraging students toanalyse knowledge claims and explore questions about the construction of knowledge. The task of TOK is toemphasize connections between areas of shared knowledge and link them to personal knowledge in such away that an individual becomes more aware of his or her own perspectives and how they might differ fromothers.Creativity, action, service (CAS) is at the heart of the Diploma Programme. The emphasis in CAS is on helpingstudents to develop their own identities, in accordance with the ethical principles embodied in the IBmission statement and the IB learner profile. It involves students in a range of activities alongside theiracademic studies throughout the Diploma Programme. The three strands of CAS are Creativity (arts andother experiences that involve creative thinking), Action (physical exertion contributing to a healthy lifestyle)and Service (an unpaid and voluntary exchange that has a learning benefit for the student). Possibly, morethan any other component in the Diploma Programme, CAS contributes to the IB’s mission to create a betterand more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect.The extended essay, including the world studies extended essay, offers the opportunity for IB students toinvestigate a topic of special interest, in the form of a 4,000-word piece of independent research. The area ofresearch undertaken is chosen from one of the students’ Diploma Programme subjects, or in the case of theinterdisciplinary world studies essay, two subjects, and acquaints them with the independent research andwriting skills expected at university. This leads to a major piece of formally presented, structured writing, inwhich ideas and findings are communicated in a reasoned and coherent manner, appropriate to the subjector subjects chosen. It is intended to promote high-level research and writing skills, intellectual discoveryand creativity. As an authentic learning experience it provides students with an opportunity to engage inpersonal research on a topic of choice, under the guidance of a supervisor.Chemistry guide3

The Diploma ProgrammeApproaches to teaching and approaches to learningApproaches to teaching and learning across the Diploma Programme refer to deliberate strategies, skills andattitudes which permeate the teaching and learning environment. These approaches and tools, intrinsicallylinked with the learner profile attributes, enhance student learning and assist student preparation for theDiploma Programme assessment and beyond. The aims of approaches to teaching and learning in theDiploma Programme are to: empower teachers as teachers of learners as well as teachers of content empower teachers to create clearer strategies for facilitating learning experiences in which studentsare more meaningfully engaged in structured inquiry and greater critical and creative thinking promote both the aims of individual subjects (making them more than course aspirations) and linkingpreviously isolated knowledge (concurrency of learning) encourage students to develop an explicit variety of skills that will equip them to continue to beactively engaged in learning after they leave school, and to help them not only obtain universityadmission through better grades but also prepare for success during tertiary education and beyond enhance further the coherence and relevance of the students’ Diploma Programme experience allow schools to identify the distinctive nature of an IB Diploma Programme education, with its blendof idealism and practicality.The five approaches to learning (developing thinking skills, social skills, communication skills, selfmanagement skills and research skills) along with the six approaches to teaching (teaching that is inquirybased, conceptually focused, contextualized, collaborative, differentiated and informed by assessment)encompass the key values and principles that underpin IB pedagogy.The IB mission statement and the IB learner profileThe Diploma Programme aims to develop in students the knowledge, skills and attitudes they will needto fulfill the aims of the IB, as expressed in the organization’s mission statement and the learner profile.Teaching and learning in the Diploma Programme represent the reality in daily practice of the organization’seducational philosophy.Academic honestyAcademic honesty in the Diploma Programme is a set of values and behaviours informed by the attributesof the learner profile. In teaching, learning and assessment, academic honesty serves to promote personalintegrity, engender respect for the integrity of others and their work, and ensure that all students have anequal opportunity to demonstrate the knowledge and skills they acquire during their studies.All coursework—including work submitted for assessment—is to be authentic, based on the student’sindividual and original ideas with the ideas and work of others fully acknowledged. Assessment tasks thatrequire teachers to provide guidance to students or that require students to work collaboratively must becompleted in full compliance with the detailed guidelines provided by the IB for the relevant subjects.For further information on academic honesty in the IB and the Diploma Programme, please consult theIB publications Academic honesty (2011), The Diploma Programme: From principles into practice (2009) andGeneral regulations: Diploma Programme (2011). Specific information regarding academic honesty as itpertains to external and internal assessment components of this Diploma Programme subject can be foundin this guide.4Chemistry guide

The Diploma ProgrammeAcknowledging the ideas or work of another personCoordinators and teachers are reminded that candidates must acknowledge all sources used in worksubmitted for assessment. The following is intended as a clarification of this requirement.Diploma Programme candidates submit work for assessment in a variety of media that may include audiovisual material, text, graphs, images and/or data published in print or electronic sources. If a candidate usesthe work or ideas of another person the candidate must acknowledge the source using a standard style ofreferencing in a consistent manner. A candidate’s failure to acknowledge a source will be investigated by theIB as a potential breach of regulations that may result in a penalty imposed by the IB final award committee.The IB does not prescribe which style(s) of referencing or in-text citation should be used by candidates; thisis left to the discretion of appropriate faculty/staff in the candidate’s school. The wide range of subjects,three response languages and the diversity of referencing styles make it impractical and restrictive to insiston particular styles. In practice, certain styles may prove most commonly used, but schools are free tochoose a style that is appropriate for the subject concerned and the language in which candidates’ work iswritten. Regardless of the reference style adopted by the school for a given subject, it is expected that theminimum information given includes: name of author, date of publication, title of source, and page numbersas applicable.Candidates are expected to use a standard style and use it consistently so that credit is given to all sourcesused, inclu