Transcription

POLITICAL CAMPAIGN PLANNINGMANUALA STEP BY STEP GUIDE TO WINNING ELECTIONSNational Democratic Institute for International Affairs

POLITICAL CAMPAIGN PLANNING MANUALThe National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) is an international nonprofit organizationworking to strengthen and expand democracy worldwide. Calling on a global network of volunteer experts, NDIprovides practical assistance to civic and political leaders advancing democratic values, practices and institutions.NDI works with democrats in every region of the world to build political and civic organizations, safeguardelections, and to promote citizen participation, openness and accountability in government.Copyright National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) 2009. All rights reserved. Portions ofthis work may be reproduced and/or translated for noncommercial purposes provided NDI is acknowledged as thesource of the material and is sent copies of any translation. Printed in the United States of America.2030 M Street, NWFifth FloorWashington, DC 20036Tel: 202-728-5500Fax: 202-728-5520Website: www.ndi.orgThis publication was made possible through the support provided by the National Endowment for Democracy.The opinions expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NationalEndowment for Democracy.Page 2 of 105

POLITICAL CAMPAIGN PLANNING MANUALPREFACEAt the beginning of 2009 NDI finds itself making the fourth version of this manual, this time forthe Malaysian context. A year after its historic March 8, 2008 general election, the Malaysiangovernment has yet to revise its laws governing elections and campaigning to respond to the publiccall for greater transparency. As Malaysians work towards a more open process, this handbookseems timely.Originally developed a decade ago by NDI’s staff team in Russia, this manual has traveled theglobe numerous times with localized updates. NDI’s team of political party experts in Malaysiaedited the version you hold for that specific context. In 2004, Indonesia’s candidates ran campaignsusing this manual and, later, candidates and their teams similarly followed the formula in thatcountry’s first direct elections for governors and mayors. In 2007, in the landmark electionsrequired by the peace agreement in Aceh after a forty-year conflict, a more substantial update to themanual gave candidates greater confidence to compete in the ever-changing world of campaignpolitics. The updates made to the manual reflect advances in targeting, message development andthe use of technology in campaigns in every country; the lesson for all of us is that politicalcampaigning is, quite simply, about effective planning. Campaigning techniques are refined overtime. The lesson of political practitioners everywhere is to learn from each others’ victories andmistakes. And, to make sure the campaign we run is appropriate to the context in which we arecompeting.As this manual makes clear, campaign plans aren’t simply calendars of activities in an electioncampaign; campaign plans are much more than that. Good campaign plans are written months andeven years prior to elections so that the party-building and good governance work required to beelected or to be re-elected are put in place with that clear, strategic goal in mind. The writtendefinition of that goal – and the map of how to get there – is the essence of any campaign plan.This manual will be used by parties big and small, established and new, as they draw a picture oftheir future electorate and ways to engage them effectively. This manual will also enable morewomen candidates to effectively run campaigns and get nominated in the face of substantialobstacles. Women’s increased nomination – and election – will be beneficial to their parties andthe communities these women will represent.Different political parties offer different analyses of the problems and solutions facing society.These are the choices put before voters. But if those ideas are not communicated effectively, to theright voters, using appropriate language and through a medium in which they can be heard andacted upon, those parties’ ideas will not be represented in parliament. A campaign plan is aboutthinking through the component steps of a campaign to touch voters in such a way that they chooseyou over the other parties and candidates on offer. Many techniques are the same regardless ofparty, electoral system or even country. But it is in the planning – and subsequent implementation– that Malaysia’s candidates will prove to voters that choosing them is the best option to keepMalaysia on a bright and positive path to the future.This manual is dedicated to every brave soul who agreed to stand as a candidate in Malaysia in2008, and in advance to those who will agree to stand in the elections to come. You give a great giftto your community. Go and ask voters for their support in humility, but knowing with pride thatyou have chosen a noble profession the opportunity to serve your neighbor.Stephanie LynnJakarta, IndonesiaMarch 2009Page 3 of 105

POLITICAL CAMPAIGN PLANNING MANUALStephanie Lynn is a Senior Program Director responsible for managing NDI’s programs for Malaysia andBurma. Programs in Malaysia focus on support for parliamentary and electoral reform. The Institute's Burmaprogram focuses on support to the democracy movement in its advocacy in Southeast Asia, Europe and theUnited States. Until late 2008, Stephanie directed the Institute’s political party programs in Indonesia and itswomen’s political participation efforts in Southeast Asia. Before moving to Indonesia in 2003, Stephaniemanaged similar portfolios with NDI’s Serbia program for five years. Living first in Belgrade under theMilosevic regime and then operating ground-breaking programs from neighboring Hungary, Stephanie wasable to return to Serbia after the dramatic elections of October 2000. In her ten years with NDI, Stephaniehas trained more than 2,000 women and men from twenty countries, across three continents. A Canadiannative, Stephanie worked as the Executive Assistant to the Minister of Finance in the British Columbiagovernment. Prior, she served for seven years as an organizer of the BC New Democratic Party (NDP),acting as a trainer and election campaign manager, during which time she also developed and deliveredinnovative, successful campaigns to youth voters. Stephanie, who earned a BA (Honors) in Anthropology,lives in Jakarta with her husband and their seven year old son.Telephone: 6017 322 7004 (Malaysia); 62811 933 932 (Indonesia)Email: [email protected] 4 of 105

POLITICAL CAMPAIGN PLANNING P ONE: RESEARCH.10ELECTION RULES .11THE DISTRICT.11THE VOTERS .11PAST ELECTIONS.11THIS ELECTION.12OUR CANDIDATE.12VIABLE OPPONENTS.12WORKSHEET 1: ASSESSING THE POLITICAL LANDSCAPE.13STEP TWO: SETTING A GOAL.14WHAT IS THE TOTAL POPULATION OF THE DISTRICT? .14WHAT IS THE TOTAL NUMBER OF VOTERS?.14WHAT IS THE EXPECTED TURNOUT?.14HOW MANY VOTES ARE NEEDED TO WIN? .14HOW MANY HOUSEHOLDS DO THESE VOTERS LIVE IN?.14BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER.15WORKSHEET 2: SETTING A CAMPAIGN GOAL.15STEP THREE: TARGETING THE VOTERS.16WHAT IS TARGETING? .16WHY TARGET VOTERS? .16CONSERVING CAMPAIGN RESOURCES.16PERSUADING TARGET VOTERS .16HOW TO TARGET VOTERS.17GEOGRAPHIC TARGETING.17DEMOGRAPHIC TARGETING .18Our Demographic Groups . 19Their Demographic Groups. 20PROBLEMS WITH TARGETING .20BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER.20Explanations .21VOTER ANALYSIS .21VALUES.21ATTITUDES.21ISSUES.21LEADERSHIP QUALITIES .22SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH .22WORKSHEET 3: GEOGRAPHIC TARGETING.22WORKSHEET 4: DEMOGRAPHIC TARGETING .22WORKSHEET 5: BRINGING TOGETHER ALL THE TARGETING .22STEP FOUR: DEVELOPING THE CAMPAIGN MESSAGE .24CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD MESSAGE.25A MESSAGE MUST BE SHORT.25A MESSAGE MUST BE TRUTHFUL AND CREDIBLE .25A MESSAGE MUST BE PERSUASIVE AND IMPORTANT TO VOTERS .25A MESSAGE MUST SHOW CONTRAST.25A MESSAGE MUST BE